Findings on happiness in Bradburn & Caplovitz (1965): study US Illinois 1962

Author(s)Bradburn, N.M.; Caplovitz, D.
TitleReports on Happiness. A Pilot Study of Behavior Related to Mental Health.
SourceAldine Publishing Company, 1965, Chicago, USA
PublicAdult, general public, 4 towns, varying in economic prosperity, Illinois, USA, 1962
Collect period3
Survey nameNot available
SampleNot available
 Probability multi-stage samples in 4 communities of comparable size, selected in view of their economic situations: 2 communities in chronic economic depression, 1 improving from chronic economic depression and 1 economically well-off. Non-institutionalized only.
Respondents N =2006
Non Response-
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
General remarksData gathering: 2 methods: 1. long form : personal structured interviews (males of age 25-49 only, N = 393) 2. short form: self-administered highly structured questionnaire delivered at home (517 males and 1097 females)
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....? 3 very happy 2 pretty happy 1 not too happy
Author's labelHappiness
Finding used in
nation ranks
Scores in123

Full textSelfreport on 9 questions: We are interested in the way people are feeling these days. The following list describes some of the ways people feel at different times. Please indicate how often you felt each way during the last week. How often last week did you feel .....? A On the top of the world B Very lonely or remote from other people C Particularly excited or interested in something D Depressed or very unhappy E Pleased about having accomplished something F Bored G Proud because someone complimented you on something you had done H So restless you couldn't sit long in a chair I Vaguely uneasy about something without knowing why Answer options: 0 not at all 1 once 2 several times 3 often Summation: Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on A, C, E, G Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on B, D, F, H, I Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS Possible range: -15 tot +12 Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale' (modified version)
Author's labelAffect Balance
Error estimatesReliability: Equivalence (on the basis of the responses of the males who were personally interviewed: N = 393): - Positive items : r ranging from +.26 to +.47 - Negative items : r ranging from +.31 to +.54 - Positive x negative items : r ranging from -.19 to +.11 - Positive affect score x negative affect score : r = .07 (ns) Validity:
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
AgeA04abCurrent age (in years)
AnxietyH15abCurrent psycho-somatic complaints
Attending games or sports activitiesS12ab01bPassive involvement in sports
Average television viewingL03ac02lTv watching, radio listening
Being retiredR12abCurrent status: retired or not
Contacts with friends other than relativesF06acCurrent contacts with friends
Contacts with relativesF03ab02Contacts with relatives
Controllable concernsC09ab02Specific concerns
Distance travelled from home during last weekL03ac02kTraveling
Eating in restaurantsL03ac02bEating/drinking out
Economic depression of local environmentL12abCurrent local economic conditions
Economic depression of local environmentL12aa01aGrowth\decline of local economy, also classified as above ↑
Educational levelE01ab02Level of school-education
Employment statusE02abCurrent employment status
Going for a trip in a carL03ac02kTraveling
Having met new peopleS06aa02Change in personal contacts
Improving economic climate of local environmentL12aa01aGrowth\decline of local economy
IncomeI01abCurrent income level (unspecified)
Job satisfactionW05ad01Satisfaction with work-as-a-whole
Male sexG01aaSex (male vs female)
Marital tensionP14ab02bProblems with family\marriage
Marital tensionM03ab06Tensions in relationship, also classified as above ↑
Married vs. divorcedM02aa03Married vs divorced
Married vs. never marriedM02aa01Married vs never married
Married vs. widowedM02aa02Married vs widowed
Never married vs. divorcedM02ab01bVs divorced
Never married vs. widowedM02ab01aVs widowed
Organizational membershipsS07ab01Membership of voluntary organizations
Overall role adjustmentR13acAttitudes to own roles
Participating in games or sports activitiesS12ab01aActive involvement in sports
Participation in religious eventsR10ad02Participation in church
Relative balance of posit. and negative feelings(aff.balan.)H07aa02bO-HL by A-AB
S.E.S.S09ab01'Objective' socio-economic status
Social participationS08abCurrent total social participation
Telephone contacts with friendsF06ac04Telephone calls with friends
Thinking often about atom-bomb or falloutW01acAttitudes to war
Thinking often about bringing up childrenC06ac01Concerns about parenthood
Thinking often about getting aheadP05abAmbitious
Thinking often about getting aheadS05ac01Concern about social mobility, also classified as above ↑
Thinking often about healthH14af01Concerns about health
Thinking often about marriageM03ac01Concern about marriage relationship
Thinking often about moneyI01af01Concerns about income
Thinking often about workW05abCurrent concern about work
Uncontrollable worriesC09ab02Specific concerns
WidowedM02ab02aVs divorced
WorryingW07ab01Amount of worrying