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Studies

Winkelmann & Winkelmann (1998): study XZ Germany West 1984

Publication

Author(s):
Winkelmann, L.; Winkelmann, R.
Title:
Why are the Unemployed so Unhappy? Evidence from Panel Data.
Source:
Economica, 1998, Vol. 65, 1 - 15

Investigation

Public:
20-64 aged males, Germany, followed 6 years, 1984-1990
Sample:
Probability stratified sample
Respondents:
N = 4183
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Selfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0  totally unsatisfied
Classification:
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-d
Author's label:
Life satisfaction
Remarks:
Year    N       Mean   CI95               %             CI95
                                                       dissatisfied
1984   4183   7,4      [7,37 7,50]     7,4       [7,39 7,41]
1985   3658   7,2      [7,17 7,30]     8,0       [7,99 8,01]
1986   3416   7,3      [7,22 7,35]     7,0       [6,99 7,01]
1987   3410   7,2      [7,12 7,25]     7,3       [7,29 7,31]
1988   3197   7,1      [7,02 7,15]     8,2       [7,19 7,21]
1989   3080   7,1      [7,06 7,19]     7,8       [7,79 7,81]
dissatisfied < 4
Page in publication:
2-5
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 1.1%,   2: 0.69%,   3: 1.24%,   4: 1.7%,   5: 2.7%,   6: 11.16%,   7: 8.25%,   8: 15.87%,   9: 26.06%,   10: 12.72%,   11: 18.5%   (total 99.99%)
Summary Statistics
On original range 0 - 10 On range 0-10
Mean:
7.40

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Labour market status Current employment status
Unemployed involuntary
Trend happiness in employment categories
Change in labour market status Change in employment
Falling unemployed
Out of workforce
Falling into unemployment Falling unemployed Becoming/in out of the labour force Out of workforce Being out of the labor force Out of workforce Being unemployed Current employment status Falling into unemployment Falling unemployed Voluntary/unvoluntary unemployment Falling unemployed
Reasons for change in employment
Duration of unemployment Duration of unemployment