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Studies

Wessman et al. (1960): study US 1957

Publication

Author(s):
Wessman, A.E.; McIlvaine-Tyl, M.; Ricks, D.F.
Title:
Characteristics and Concomitants of Mood Fluctuations in College Women.
Source:
Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1960, Vol. 60, 117 - 126

Investigation

Public:
Female college students, followed 6 weeks, Radcliffe, USA, 1957
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 14
Non Response:
44% dropouts
Assessment:
Multiple methods
Mood diary completed daily during 6 weeks and various tests

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Selfreport on single question, answered every evening before retiring during six weeks (experience sampling)

"On average;  how elated or depressed,  happy or unhappy you felt today....?
10  Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstasy
9    Very elated and in very high spirits.   Tremendous
      delight and buoyancy
8    Elated and in high spirits
7    Feeling very good and cheerful
6    Feeling pretty good , "OK"
5    Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so
4    Spirits low and somewhat 'blue'
3    Depressed and feeling very low.
      Definitely 'blue'
2    Tremendously depressed.
      Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful"
1    Utter depression and gloom. Completely down.
      All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over.

Name:  Wessman & Ricks'  `Elation - depression scale'
Classification:
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b
Author's label:
Elation - depression
Remarks:
Positively skewed.
Individual means of the daily average ratings varied from 5.43 to 7.37; mean of their means: 6.14; median: 6.14; Ms' = 6.14.
Error estimates:
Reliability: Repeat reliability: between-subject variance in scores of daily mood shown to be greater than variances within individual daily records (significant at 01 level). Validity:

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Mood fluctuation Variability of affects Self-esteem (real-ideal congruency) Real-ideal congruence Consistency of self-concept Current consistency of self-image Real self descriptions Current self-characterization Ideal-self descriptions Current self-ideal