Wessman et al. (1960): study US 1957
- Wessman, A.E.; McIlvaine-Tyl, M.; Ricks, D.F.
- Characteristics and Concomitants of Mood Fluctuations in College Women.
- Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1960, Vol. 60, 117 - 126
- Female college students, followed 6 weeks, Radcliffe, USA, 1957
- N = 14
- Non Response:
- 44% dropouts
Mood diary completed daily during 6 weeks and various tests
Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings
- Full text:
Selfreport on single question, answered every evening before retiring during six weeks (experience sampling)
"On average; how elated or depressed, happy or unhappy you felt today....?
10 Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstasy
9 Very elated and in very high spirits. Tremendous
delight and buoyancy
8 Elated and in high spirits
7 Feeling very good and cheerful
6 Feeling pretty good , "OK"
5 Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so
4 Spirits low and somewhat 'blue'
3 Depressed and feeling very low.
2 Tremendously depressed.
Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful"
1 Utter depression and gloom. Completely down.
All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over.
Name: Wessman & Ricks' `Elation - depression scale'
- Author's label:
- Elation - depression
- Positively skewed.
Individual means of the daily average ratings varied from 5.43 to 7.37; mean of their means: 6.14; median: 6.14; Ms' = 6.14.
- Error estimates:
- Reliability: Repeat reliability: between-subject variance in scores of daily mood shown to be greater than variances within individual daily records (significant at 01 level). Validity: