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Studies

Washburn et al. (1925): study US 1923

Publication

Author(s):
Washburn, M.F.; Harding, L.; Simmons, H.; Tomlinson, D.
Title:
Further experiments on directed recall as a test of cheerful and depressed temperaments.
Source:
American Journal of Psychology, 1925, Vol. 36, 454 - 456

Investigation

Public:
Female students, cheerful and depressed, USA, 192?
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 67
Non Response:
-
Assessment:
Questionnaire: paper
Questionnaire administered in class. Additionally peerratings of cheerfullness and projective tests during 3 days

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Selfreport on single  question:

Each S was asked to judge herself using one of the four terms:
(precise lead item not reported)
4 steadily cheerful
3 variable tendency to cheerfulness
2 variable tendency to depression
1 steadily depressed
Classification:
A-AOL-g-sq-v-4-d
Author's label:
Hedonic level of affect
Full text:
Selfreport + 3 peer ratings, on same single question:

A. Selfreport: Each subject was asked to judge herself using one of four terms. (Precise lead item not reported)

B. Peer ratings: The judgments of three friends were obtained using the terms.

Response options:
4  steadily cheerful
3  variable tending to cheerfulness
2  variable tending to depression
1  steadily depressed

Summation: a + b/2
Classification:
A-AOL-g-*-v-4-a
Author's label:
Hedonic level
Remarks:
Negatively skewed
Possible range: 4 - 16; median score: 12.5

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Recall of pleasant associations Positive reacting Galvanic skin response Tension