VanHemert et al. (2002a): study ZZ 1974


VanHemert, D.A.; Poortinga, Y.H.; VandeVijver, F.J.
The Beck Depression Inventory as a Measure of Subjective Well-Being: A Cross-National Study.
Journal of Happiness Study, 2002, Vol. 3, 257 - 286


Adults, general public, 30 countries, 1974-1999
Non-probability purposive-quota sample
N = 44098
Non Response
not reported
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Self report on single questions:

This measure of average happiness in nations combines responses to different questions on happiness and life-satisfaction rated on different scales. Precise items and rating scales differ per nation. Average scores per nation were transformed afterwards to a common 0-10 scale.

Name: Diener's SWB-score of nations
Author's label:
Diener's SWB
Full text:
Self report on two questions:

A Taking all together, how happy would you say you are?
    4  very happy
    3  quite happy
    2  not very happy
    1 not at all happy
B  All things considered, how satisfied are you with your
    life as-a-whole now?
    10  satisfied
    1  dissatisfied

Computation: (Ax2,5) +B -10

Name: Inglehart's combined score
Author's label:
Inglehart's SWB

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Depression Mental health in nation Positive affect Affect in nation Negative Affect Affect in nation Affect Balance Overall Happiness and Hedonic Affect-level
Overall happiness (life-satisfaction) in nation
Depression prevalence rate Mental health in nation Suicide rate Suicide in nation Affluence Summed nation characteristics Gross National Product GDP per capita in nation (raw) Political Rights and Democracy Political democracy in nation Civil rights Human-rights protection in nation Level of democracy Political democracy in nation Stability of democracy Parliamentary democracy in nation Death by political violence Political violence in nation Gini index Income inequality in nation Economic growth Change GDP in nation: economic growth/decline Importance of happiness Valuation of happiness
Hedonic values in nation
Hedonism in nation
Cynicism Trust in fellow-man in nation Calvinism Religion in nation Psychoticism (Eysenck) Mental health in nation
Psychoticism in nation
Extraversion (Eysenck) Extraversion in nation Neuroticism (Eysenck) Neuroticism in nation
Mental health in nation
Social desirability (Eysenck) Honesty in nation Individualism (Hofstede) Individualism/collectivism in nation Masculinity (Hofstede) Value climate in the nation Power distance (Hofstede) Status differentiation (stratification) in nation
Value climate in the nation
Uncertainty Avoidance (Hofstede) Value climate in the nation Integration (Chinese value) Value climate in the nation Confucian Work Dynamism (Chinese value) Value climate in the nation Human-heartedness (Chinese value) Value climate in the nation Moral discipline (Chinese value) Value climate in the nation Autonomy (Schwartz value) Value climate in the nation Hierachy factor (Schwartz value) Value climate in the nation Married females Marriage pattern in nation Married males Marriage pattern in nation Religiosity Religion in nation Unemployed Unemployment in nation