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Studies

Toussaint & Friedman (2009): study US 2004

Publication

Author(s):
Toussaint, L.L.; Friedman, P.H.
Title:
Forgiveness, Gratitude and Well-Being: The Mediating Role of Affect and Beliefs.
Source:
Journal of Happiness Studies, 2009, Vol. 10, 635 - 654

Investigation

Public:
Psychotherapy outpatients, Philadelphia, USA, 2004
Sample:
Non-probability purposive sample
Respondents:
N = 72
Non Response:
0
Assessment:
Questionnaire: paper
Fillled out as standard battery at intake

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Selfreport on single question:

How high or low is your level of wellbeing?
0    extremely low, utterly depressed, completely down
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100 extremely high, feeling extatic joyous, fantastic

Adapted Fordyce Happiness Scale
Classification:
A-AOL-u-sq-n-101-a
Author's label:
Fordyce happiness scale
Page in publication:
642
Full text:
Selfreport on 10 questions:

"During the past week, did you ever feel.....?"

A   So restless that you could not sit long in a chair
B   Proud, because someone had complimented you
C   Very lonely or remote  from people?
D   Pleased about having accomplished something
E   Bored
F   On top of the world?
G   Depressed
H   That things were going your way?
I    Upset because someone criticized you?
J   Could not do anything, simply because you could not start?

Answer options and scoring:
- yes  = 1
- no  =  0

Summation:
Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed  scores on  B,D F,H
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed  scores on A,C,E,G,I,J
Affect Balance Score (ABS):  PAS minus NAS

Possible range -6 to +4

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale'  (adapted version)
Classification:
A-BB-cw-mq-v-2-a
Author's label:
Bradburn affect balance scale
Page in publication:
642

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Forgiveness of self Forgiving Forgiveness of others Forgiving Forgiveness of situations Forgiving Avoidance Avoidant Revenge Revengious Gratitude Thankfull Gratitude Thankfull Affect A-AOL by A-AB Friedman Affect Scale A-AOL by A-AB
A-AB by A-AB
Friedman Belief Scale Current self-characterization Satisfaction with Life Scale Happiness inventories involving unacceptable items