print

Studies

Sheldon & Lyubomirsky (2006): study US 2003

Publication

Author(s):
Sheldon, K.M.; Lyubomirsky, S.
Title:
How to Increase and Sustain Positive Emotion: The Effect of Expressing Gratitude and Visualizing best possible Selves.
Source:
The Journal of Positive Psychology, 2006, Vol. 1, 73 - 82

Investigation

Public:
Psychology Students, USA, 2003
Survey name:
Unnamed study
Sample:
Non-probability self-selected
Respondents:
N = 67
Non Response:
Assessment:
Questionnaire: web

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Selfreport on 20 questions.

This scale consists of a number of words that describe different feelings and emotions. Read each item and mark the appropriate answer in the space next to that word. Indicate to what extend you feel this way

A  nervous
B  distressed
C  afraid
D  jittery
E  irritable
F  upset
G  scared
H  ashamed
I  guilty
J  hostile
K  excited
L  active
M  determined
N  inspired
O  enthusiastic
P  alert
Q  attentive
R  proud
S  strong
T  interested

Answer options:  
1  very slightly or not at all
2  a little
3  moderately
4  quite a bit
5  extremely

Negative affect score (NAS): (A to J)/10
Positive affect score (PAS): (K to T)/10
Affect Balance Score  (ABS): PAS - NAS

Name: Watson's PANAS (time version not reported)
Classification:
A-BW-?-mq-v-5-b
Author's label:
Affect
Remarks:
Mean score atbaseline, whole sample
Page in publication:
77
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 0%,   2: 0%,   3: 0%,   4: 0%,   5: 0%
Summary Statistics
On original range -4 - 4 On range 0-10
Mean:
1.74

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Gratitude and Best Possible Self intervention Best possible self exercise
Gratitude training
On invitation, no pay
Combinations of guided intervention and self help