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Studies

Sheldon & Elliot (1999): study US 1994 /2

Publication

Author(s):
Sheldon, K.M.; Elliot, A.J.
Title:
Goal Striving, Need Satisfaction, and Longitudinal Well-Being: The Self-Concordance Model.
Source:
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1999, Vol. 76, 482 - 497

Investigation

Public:
18+ aged, students followed 3 months, USA, 199?
Sample:
Non-probability chunk sample
Respondents:
N = 73
Non Response:
Assessment:
Questionnaire: paper
T1, T6, T11: take-home pakets of questionnaires T2-T5, T7-T10: in-class questionnaires

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Selfreport on 25 questions

A   Selfreport on life satisfaction on five questions
      a  In most ways my life is close to ideal
      b  The conditions of my life are excellent
      c  I am satisfied with my life
      d  So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life
      e  If I could live my life over, I would change nothing
      Answers rated: 7  strongly agree ...1  strongly disagree
      (Diener's Satisfaction With Life Scale, SWLS)

B   Selfreport on mood on 20 questions
      How much of each mood did you experience in the last month?
      a  nervous
      b  distressed
      c  afraid
      d  jittery
      e  irritable
      f  upset
      g  scared
      h  exiled
      i   ashamed
      j   guilty
      k  hostile
      l  active
     m  determined
     n  inspired
     o  enthusiastic
     p  alert
     q  attentive
     r  proud
     s  strong
     t  interested
     Answered: 1 not at all …… 7 very frequently
     (Watson's Positive And Negative Affect Scale PANAS)

Summation: First computation of z-scores of A (life-satisfaction), Ba-k (negative affect) and Bl-t (positive affect). Next zA + zBl-t -zBa-k

Answer options:
a  1  very slightly or not at all
b  2  a little
c  3  moderately
d  4  quite a bit
e  5  extremely

Negative affect score (NAS): A to K
Positive affect score   (PAS): L to T
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS

Name: Watson et al's PANAS ('past few weeks' version)
Classification:
M-AO-cm-mq-v*-12-a

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Self-concordance Authenticity of earlier goals
Authenticity of goals
Motivation career
Current motivation
Semester effort Involvement in life-goals
Current motivation
Semester attainment Perceived realization of life-goals Semester need satisfaction Current self-characterization