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Studies

Sheldon & Elliot (1999): study US 1994 /2

Publication

Author(s):
Sheldon, K.M.; Elliot, A.J.
Title:
Goal Striving, Need Satisfaction, and Longitudinal Well-Being: The Self-Concordance Model.
Source:
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1999, Vol. 76, 482 - 497

Investigation

Public:
18+ aged, students followed 3 months, USA, 199?
Sample:
Non-probability chunk sample
Respondents:
N = 73
Non Response:
Assessment:
Questionnaire: paper
T1, T6, T11: take-home pakets of questionnaires T2-T5, T7-T10: in-class questionnaires

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Selfreport on 25 questions

A   Selfreport on life satisfaction on five questions
      a  In most ways my life is close to ideal
      b  The conditions of my life are excellent
      c  I am satisfied with my life
      d  So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life
      e  If I could live my life over, I would change nothing
      Answers rated: 7  strongly agree ...1  strongly disagree
      (Diener's Satisfaction With Life Scale, SWLS)

B   Selfreport on mood on 20 questions
      How much of each mood did you experience in the last month?
  a  nervous
  b  distressed
  c  afraid
  d  jittery
  e  irritable
   f  upset
  g scared
  h  ashamed
   i  guilty
  j hostile
  k  excited
  l  active
  m determined
  n  inspired
  o enthusiastic
  p alert
  q attentive
  r  proud
  s strong
  t  interested
    
Rated :
1 not at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 very frequently
(Watson's Positive And Negative Affect Scale PANAS)

Positive affect score PAS: k to t
Negative affect score NAS: a to j

Summation: (z-score A) + (z-score B:PAS) - (z-score B:NAS)
Classification:
M-AO-cm-mq-vt-7-a

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Self-concordance Authenticity of earlier goals
Authenticity of goals
Motivation career
Current motivation
Semester effort Involvement in life-goals
Current motivation
Semester attainment Perceived realization of life-goals Semester need satisfaction Current self-characterization