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Studies

Seidlitz & Diener (1993): study US 1988

Publication

Author(s):
Seidlitz, L.; Diener, E.
Title:
Memory for Positive versus Negative Life Events: Theories for the Differences between Happy and Unhappy Persons.
Source:
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1993, Vol. 64, 654 - 664

Investigation

Public:
Psychology undergraduate, students, University of Illinois, USA, 198?
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 420
Non Response:
Assessment:
Questionnaire: paper
Questionnaire completed in class

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Selfreport on 2 questions:

A:  "In general how happy or unhappy do you usually feel? Check the one statement below that best describes your average happiness.
10   extremely happy (feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic)
9     very happy (feeling really good, elated)
8      pretty happy (spirits high, feeling good)
7      mildly happy (feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful)
6      slightly happy (just a bit above neutral)
5      neutral (not particularly happy or unhappy)
4      slightly unhappy (just a bit below neutral)
3      mildly unhappy  (just a little low)
2      pretty unhappy (somewhat "blue", spirits down)
1      very unhappy (depressed, spirits very low)
0      extremely unhappy (utterly depressed, completely down)"  

B:   "Consider your emotions a moment further. On the average.
- What percent of the time do you feel happy?
- What percent of the time do you feel unhappy?
- What percent of the time do you feel neutral (neither happy
  nor unhappy)?
  Make sure the three figures add-up to equal 100%".

Scoring:
- Question A :  0.- 10
- Question B :  % happy
Summation : (A  *  10  +  B)/2
Classification:
A-AOL-g-mq-*-0-a
Author's label:
Happiness Measure
Full text:
Selfreport on single question:

." In general how happy or unhappy do you usually feel....?"
Check the one statement that best describes your average happiness.
10  extremely happy (feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic)
9    very happy (feeling really good, elated)
8    pretty happy (spirits high, feeling good)
7    mildly happy (feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful)
6    slightly happy (just a bit above neutral)
5    neutral (not particularly happy or unhappy)
4    slightly unhappy (just a bit below neutral)
3    mildly unhappy  (just a little low)
2    pretty unhappy (somewhat "blue", spirits down)
1    very unhappy (depressed, spirits very low)
0    extremely unhappy (utterly depressed, completely down)

Fordyce Happiness Scale
Classification:
A-AOL-g-sq-v-11-a
Author's label:
Happiness

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Balance of recalled life-events (free recall) Balance of negative- and positive life-events Current mood Mood during the interview