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Studies

Schaefer & Bayley (1963): study US 1929 /1

Publication

Author(s):
Schaefer, E.S.; Bayley, N.
Title:
Maternal Behavior, Child Behavior and Their Intercorrelation.
Source:
Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Serial no. 87, 1963, Vol. 28, 3 - 127

Investigation

Public:
Girls, followed from age 0 to 18, Berkely, California, USA, 1929-47
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 19
Non Response:
Assessment:
Multiple methods
Observations of behavior and interviews in childhood and adolescence

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Clinical rating.

Ratings by four judges on the basis of notes from observations and interviews between age 12-18.

Ratings were made on  the following dimensions:
A. discontented
B. unhappy
C. dissatisfied
D. complaints

Rating options:
1  not at all true
2  
3
4  average
5
6
7
8  extremely true

Summation: not reported
Classification:
O-Sum-g-rc-v-7-a
Author's label:
Adolescent Discontent
Error estimates:
Reliability: Kuder-Richardson formula (p 38): .83 Validity:
Full text:
Selfreport in focused interview

Rating two independent interviewers.
A. Psychiatric social worker who interviewed parents at home. Interview focused on child
B. Clinical psychologist who interviewed parents separately. Interview focused on family  life.

Rating options:
7 extremely cheerful, animated, jolly
6
5
4  usually good-humored air
3
2
1  dejected, melancholic appearance, in the dumps

Summation: average ratings A and B
Classification:
A-CP-g-fi-v-7-a
Author's label:
Adolescent Cheerfulness
Error estimates:
Reliability: Kuder-Richardson formula (p 38): .83 Validity:

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Personality in childhood (age 2 to 8) Earlier personality traits Cheerfulness O-open by A-CA
Rating of happiness by interviewer
Personality in adolescence (age 12-18) PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS Emotional tone in babyhood (age 0-3) Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Long term happiness (< 10 years ago)