Robinson et al. (2001): study US 1986
- Robinson, J.L.; Corley, R.P.; Emde, R.N.
- Dispositional Cheerfulness. Early Genetic and Environmental Influences.
- Emde, R.N.; Hewitt, J.K.: Eds.: ''Infancy to Early Childhood'', Oxford University Press, 2001, New York, USA, 163 - 177
- Toddlers, same-sex twins, Colorado, United States, followed from 14 to 24 months of age, 1986-1989
- Survey name
- Unnamed study
- Non-probability purposive sample
- N = 400
- Non Response
behavioral observation at home and in laboratory, recorded on video tape; parental reports in questionnaire
Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings
- Full text:
Time sampling of happy behaviors during free play and Bayley testing. Analysis of 1 minute intervals during Bayley tests and 30 second intervals during free play
1 no positive emotion observed
2 positive interest
4 strong laughter
Computation: average over all observations
Interviewer rating of happiness, using flexible standards relative to the age of the subject.
Full instructions not reported.
- Author's label:
- Positive Hedonic Tone
- In both test situations the Hedonic Tone Scale was used (Easterbrooks & Emde, 1983).
Bayley Testing: lasts 40-45min, rating in 1-min intervals, sampled in 5-min blocks (i.e. 5min on, 5min, off)
Free play: lasts 15min, rated continuously in 30sec intervals
BAYLEY TEST: FREE PLAY:
14 months: M=2.41 sd=.33 N=393 M=2.23 sd=.27 N=394
20 months: M=2.44 sd=.31 N=367 M=2.30 sd=.28 N=369
24 months: M=2.50 sd=.34 N=354 M=2.25 sd=.22 N=354
- Page in publication:
- Error estimates:
- Correleations across contexts are relatively low at each age such that the reliability is not given. mean r=+.42
- Observed distribution
- Summary Statistics
- On original range 1 - 4 On range 0-10
- 2.36 -
- 0.29 -
Happiness of siblings