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Studies

Robinson et al. (2001): study US 1986

Publication

Author(s):
Robinson, J.L.; Corley, R.P.; Emde, R.N.
Title:
Dispositional Cheerfullness. Early Genetic and Environmental Influences.
Source:
Emde, R.N.; Hewitt, J.K.: Eds.: ''Infancy to Early Childhood'', Oxford University Press, 2001, New York, USA, 163 - 177

Investigation

Public:
Toddlers, same-sex twins, Colorado, United States, followed from 14 to 24 months of age, 1986-1989
Survey name:
Unnamed study
Sample:
Non-probability purposive sample
Respondents:
N = 400
Non Response:
Assessment:
Behavioural observation
behavioral observation at home and in laboratory, recorded on video tape; parental reports in questionnaire

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Time sampling of happy behaviors during free play and Bayley testing. Analysis of 1 minute intervals during Bayley tests and 30 second intervals during free play

Rated:
1 no positive emotion observed
2 positive interest
3 smiling
4 strong laughter

Computation: average over all observations

Interviewer rating of happiness,  using flexible standards relative to the age of the subject.

Full instructions not reported.
Classification:
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-4-a
Author's label:
Positive Hedonic Tone
Remarks:
In both test situations the Hedonic Tone Scale was used (Easterbrooks & Emde, 1983).
Bayley Testing: lasts 40-45min, rating in 1-min intervals, sampled in 5-min blocks (i.e. 5min on, 5min, off)
Free play: lasts 15min, rated continuously in 30sec intervals

                   BAYLEY TEST:                    FREE PLAY:
14 months:  M=2.41 sd=.33 N=393          M=2.23 sd=.27 N=394
20 months:  M=2.44 sd=.31 N=367          M=2.30 sd=.28 N=369
24 months:  M=2.50 sd=.34 N=354          M=2.25 sd=.22 N=354
Page in publication:
167-169
Error estimates:
Correleations across contexts are relatively low at each age such that the reliability is not given. mean r=+.42
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 0%,   2: 0%,   3: 0%,   4: 0%
Summary Statistics
On original range 1 - 4 On range 0-10
Mean:
2.36
SD:
0.29

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Stability of positive hedonic tone across situations A-CA by A-CA Empathy-positive expression Positive reacting
Empathic
Prohibition-positive hedonic tone Positive reacting
Bold
Happiness of twin sibling Happiness of siblings
Happiness of sibblings