Parks (2009): study US Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 2004


Parks, A.C.
Positive Psychotherapy: Building a Model of empirically supported Self-Help.
PhD dissertation, 2009, University of Pennsylvania, USA.


Participants in a happiness training and controls, followed 1 year, Philadelphia, USA, 2004
Survey name
Unnamed study
Non-probability self-selected
N = 37
Non Response
Questionnaire: Conputer Assisted Web Interview (CAWI)
Participants completed web-based assessments before and after the 6-week intervention period, as well as 3-months, 6-months, and 1 year after post. Upon completion of the post-assessment, participants received $100 in compensation. They received $50 for each subsequent follow-up completed. During 6 weeks participants in the intervention group completed exercises in Positive Psycho Therapy (PPT). The final session focused on maintenance personalization. The control group did not participate in PPT. Both groups completed the questionnaires at baseline (T1), after 6 weeks (T2), after 3 months (T3), after 6 months (T4) and after 1 year (T5).

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Self report on four questions:

Using the 1-7 scale below, indicate your agreement with each of the items by placing the appropriate number on the line preceding that item. Please be open and honest in your responding.
A  In most ways my life is close to ideal
B  The conditions of my life are excellent
C  I am satisfied with my life
D  So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life

Answers rated:
7  strongly agree
6  agree
5  slightly agree
4  neither agree nor disagree
3  slightly disagree
2  disagree
1  strongly disagree

Computation: A+B+C+D

Name: Shortened Diener's Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS-4)
(In the original scale item 5 reads: 'If I could live my life over, I would change nothing'. This item is left out in this selection because a positive answer to this question does not necessarily mean that the respondent doesn't like the life he/she actually lives.)
Author's label:
Life satisfaction
Page in publication:

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Positive psychotherapy training Actual changes in happiness
Trainings for multiple mental skills
Support group with professional
Course, class, training group
On invitation, paid in money or study credit
Multiple sorts
Multiple treatment moments