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Studies

Palmore & Kivett (1977): study US 1968

Publication

Author(s):
Palmore, E.B.; Kivett, V.R.
Title:
Change in Life Satisfaction. A Longitudinal Study of Persons Aged 46 - 70.
Source:
Journal of Gerontology, 1977, Vol. 32, 311 - 316

Investigation

Public:
46+ aged whites, followed 2 years, USA, 1968-1972/74
Sample:
Probability stratified sample
Respondents:
N = 378
Non Response:
Assessment:
Multiple methods
Whole-day interviews, tests and examinations

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Selfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder (9) represents the best possible life for you and the bottom (0) represents the worst possible life for you.  Where on the ladder do you feel personally stand at the present time?
[   9  ]  best possible life for you
[   8  ]
[   7  ]
[   6  ]
[   5  ]
[   4  ]
[   3  ]
[   2  ]
[   1  ]
[   0  ]  worst possible life for you

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (adapted version)
Classification:
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-ca
Author's label:
Life satisfaction
Remarks:
T1: M= 7.1, T2: M= 7.2 , T3: M= 7.0
Page in publication:
374
Error estimates:
Reliabilty (Heise) from crosswave correlations r(T1,T2), r(T1,T3) and r(T2,T3) = +.65
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 0%,   2: 0%,   3: 0%,   4: 0%,   5: 0%,   6: 0%,   7: 0%,   8: 0%,   9: 0%,   10: 0%
Summary Statistics
On original range 0 - 9 On range 0-10
Mean:
7.10
SD:
1.40

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Selfrated health Earlier physical health
Global health rating
Social activity hours Earlier total social participation
Current total social participation
Earlier life-satisfaction Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago) Male sex Sex (male vs female) age Actual changes in happiness
Trend happiness in age groups
Age difference among elderly
Productive hours Time spent on work and care Sexual enjoyment Earlier satisfaction with sex-life
Satisfaction with sex-life
Organizational activity Earlier organizational participation
Current organizational participation
Social activity hours Earlier leisure
Current leisure activity
Current contacts