Ormel (1980): study NL 1970


Ormel, J.
Moeite met Leven of een Moeilijk Leven. (Difficulties with Living or a Difficult Life).
Konstapel, 1980, Groningen, Netherlands


15-60 aged, general public, followed 12 month, The Netherlands, 1967-77
N = 296
Non Response
Interview: face-to-face
Structured interview

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Self report on 8 questions:

" In the past few weeks did you ever feel.....?"
A  Pleased about having accomplished something
B  Upset because someone criticized you
C  Proud because someone complimented you one something you had done
D That things are going your way
E So restless you couldn't sit long in a chair
F  Unhappy or depressed
G  Particularly interested in something
H  Lonely and remote from other people

Response options:
0  not at all
1  sometimes
2  often
3  very often

Scoring: a = 0..........d  = 3

Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on A, C, D, G
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on B, E, F, H
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (shortened variant)
Author's label:
Affect balance
Error estimates:
T2: _ =.59, T3: _=.63
Observed distribution
Summary Statistics
On original range 0 - 12 On range 0-10
22.90 6.50
- -

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Male sex Sex: male (vs female) Level of education Earlier educational level
Level of school-education
Income Earlier level of income
Current income level (unspecified)
Urban living Rural dwelling (vs urban)
Earlier rural residence
Community size Community size
Earlier community size
Unemployment Earlier unemployment
Current employment status
Living alone Living alone or not
Lived alone earlier
Complaints about mental health Earlier mental health
Number of mental complaints
Positive affects Recent happiness (< 1 year ago) Past happiness Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago) Change in happiness Change happiness over life time Change in burdens in the last year (lowering) Change in burden of life events Neuroticism Earlier psycho-somatic complaints
Earlier neuroticism
Self esteem Earlier self-confidence
Earlier self-image
Intimacy between partners Characteristics of earlier marriage-relationship(s)
Intimacy with spouse
Adequacy of coping Earlier coping
Coping-success rating by others
Interpreting symptoms as illness Earlier health-behavior
Conceptions of illness and healing
Interprets symptoms as illness
Taking action on symptoms of illness Current medical consumption Readiness to consult a doctor Trust in medical professionals
Use of medical services
Denial of illness Denial of illness
Earlier denial of illness
Traumatic childhood experiences Burden of earlier life-events Unhappy childhood In specific periods in the past Life-Quality Burden of earlier life-events
Summed life-events: weighted in context
Effects of individual happiness
Earlier community size Earlier residence
Earlier community size
Dissatisfaction with society Earlier anomy
Current anomy
Satisfaction with moral climate
Internal control Earlier inner-control
Inner locus of control
Tolerance degree Earlier openness
Closed attitude Response tendencies
Earlier openness
Inclination to answer positively Response tendencies
Earlier tendency to agree
Approval seeking
Negative affects Earlier mood-pattern
Later mood-pattern
Psycho-social burdens Life-stress inventories
Actual earlier problems (observed by follow-up)
Amount of problems perceived
Complaints about physical health Earlier physical health
Later physical health
Number of health complaints
Received social support Earlier support received
Amount of current support received
Chronological age Current age (in years)
Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)