print

Studies

Ormel (1980): study NL 1970

Publication

Author(s):
Ormel, J.
Title:
Moeite met Leven of een Moeilijk Leven. (Difficulties with Living or a Difficult Life).
Source:
Konstapel, 1980, Groningen, Netherlands

Investigation

Public
15-60 aged, general public, followed 12 month, The Netherlands, 1967-77
Sample
Respondents
N = 296
Non Response
18%
Assessment
Interview: face-to-face
Structured interview

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Self report on 8 questions:

" In the past few weeks did you ever feel.....?"
A  Pleased about having accomplished something
B  Upset because someone criticized you
C  Proud because someone complimented you one something you had done
D That things are going your way
E So restless you couldn't sit long in a chair
F  Unhappy or depressed
G  Particularly interested in something
H  Lonely and remote from other people

Response options:
0  not at all
1  sometimes
2  often
3  very often

Scoring: a = 0..........d  = 3

Summation:
Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on A, C, D, G
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on B, E, F, H
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (shortened variant)
Classification:
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-c
Author's label:
Affect balance
Error estimates:
T2: _ =.59, T3: _=.63
Observed distribution
Summary Statistics
On original range 0 - 12 On range 0-10
Mean:
22.90 6.50
SD:
- -

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Male sex Sexe: male (vs female) Level of education Level of school-education Income Later level of income
Current income level (unspecified)
Urban living Rural dwelling (vs urban) Community size Earlier community size Unemployment Earlier unemployment
Current employment status
Living alone Living alone or not Complaints about mental health Earlier mental health Positive affects Recent happiness (< 1 year ago) Past happiness Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago) Change in happiness Change happiness over life time Change in burdens in the last year (lowering) Change in life-event burden Neuroticism Earlier psycho-somatic complaints Self esteem Earlier self-image Intimacy between partners Intimacy with spouse Adequacy of coping Coping-success rating by others Interpreting symptoms as illness Conceptions of illness and healing Taking action on symptoms of illness Current medical consumption Readiness to consult a doctor Trust in medical professionals
HAPPINESS: CONSEQUENCES
Use of medical services
Denial of illness Denial of illness Traumatic childhood experiences Burden of earlier life-events Unhappy childhood In specific periods in the past Life-Quality Summed life-events: weighted in context Earlier community size Earlier residence Dissatisfaction with society Development of anomy
Satisfaction with moral climate
Internal control Earlier inner-control
Inner locus of control
Tolerance degree Current coping-style
Earlier self-disclosing
Degree of self-disclosure
Closed attitude Response tendencies
Open
Inclination to answer positively Response tendencies
Earlier tendency to agree
Approval seeking
Negative affects Earlier mood-pattern
Later mood-pattern
Psycho-social burdens Life-stress inventories
Actual earlier problems (observed by follow-up)
Amount of problems perceived
Complaints about physical health Earlier physical health
Later physical health
Number of health complaints
Received social support Earlier support received
Amount of current support received
Chronological age Current age (in years)
Recent happiness (< 1 year ago)