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Studies

Mussen et al. (1980): study US 1928

Publication

Author(s):
Mussen, P.H.; Bieber, S.L.; Eichorn, D.H.; Honzik, M.P.; Meredith, W.M.
Title:
Continuity and Change in Women's Characteristics over Four Decades.
Source:
International Journal of Behavioral Development, 1980, Vol. 3, 333 - 347

Investigation

Public:
Mothers, followed from age 30 to 70, Berkeley USA, 1928-68
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 53
Non Response:
Assessment:
Multiple assesment methods
Observation and interviews at age 30 and age 70

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Self report in focused interview

Rating two independent interviewers.
A. Psychiatric social worker who interviewed parents at home. Interview focused on child
B. Clinical psychologist who interviewed parents separately. Interview focused on family  life.

Rating options:
7 extremely cheerful, animated, jolly
6
5
4  usually good-humored air
3
2
1  dejected, melancholic appearance, in the dumps

Summation: average ratings A and B
Classification:
A-CP-g-fi-v-7-a
Author's label:
Cheerfulness
Error estimates:
Reliability: Equivalence: interrater agreement at T1: r = +.59 . Retest after 40 years r = +.28 (p<05). Validity:
Full text:
Self report in focused interview

Two independent interviews. Each interviewer rated `satisfaction with lot' on the same scale.
1  tremendously satisfied
2
3
4  average
5
6
7  extremely dissatisfied
Classification:
O-SLC-g-fi-v-7-b
Author's label:
Satisfaction with lot
Remarks:
T1: (Age 30)  Ms = 3.0      Ms' = 7.0     SD = 1.2
T2: (Age 70)  Ms = 2.6      Ms' = 7.4     SD = 1.3
Error estimates:
Reliability: Equivalence: interrater agreement at T1: r = +.60 . Retest after 40 years r = +.15 ns. Validity:

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Unworrisome; satisfied; self-assured Earlier self-confidence
Self-confidant
Earlier worries
Amount of worrying
Excitable; energetic; talkative;restless Tense
Vigorous
Later tenseness
Good use of languageworrisome;restless; high self-esteem Later self-confidence Open-minded; accuracy in thinking Clever
Open
Later cleverness
Later openness
Interested in child; uncritical of child; talkative Attitudes to one's own children
Personality of parents
Intelligent; interested in child;uncritical of child Capacities of parents
Personality of parents
Involvement of parents
Talkative; critical Tense Intelligent; interested in child Parents characteristics
Personality of parents
Earlier cleverness
Clever
Interested