Moller (1988a): study ZA 1983


Moller, V.
Quality of Life in Retirement: A Case Study of Zulu Return Migrants.
Social Indicators Research, 1988, Vol. 20, 621 - 658


Ex-migrant workers, returned to rural KwaZulu, South Africa, 1983
N = 253
Non Response:
Interview: face-to-face

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Selfreport on single question:

Taking your life as a whole, are you .......?
5   very satisfied
4   quite satisfied
3   more satisfied than discontented
2   more discontented than satisfied
1   quite dissatisfied
Author's label:
Life satisfaction
Observed distribution
1: 19.5%,   2: 44%,   3: 0%,   4: 35.5%,   5: 1%   (total 100%)
Summary Statistics
On original range 1 - 5 On range 0-10
2.55 3.90
Full text:
Selfreport on single question:

Taking all things together in your life, how would you say things are these days?  Would you say you are ....?
5  very happy
4  happy
3  neither happy nor unhappy
2  unhappy
1  very unhappy
Author's label:
Observed distribution
1: 34%,   2: 21.5%,   3: 2%,   4: 35.5%,   5: 7%   (total 100%)
Summary Statistics
On original range 1 - 5 On range 0-10
2.60 4.00

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Age Current age (in years) Number of years worked in town (migrant work) Earlier occupation Total years worked in wage employment (migrant work) Earlier occupation Age at retirement from wage labour (migrant work) Age at retirement Number of years retired (from migrant work) Time since retirement Job satisfaction when in wage employment Earlier satisfaction with work Positive anticipation of retirement Earlier attitudes to retirement Approval of early retirement Earlier attitudes to retirement Sudden retirement (from migrant work) Sudden retirement (vs gradual) Frequency of home visits while workingin town Earlier migrant work Perceived security of landholding Current characteristics of the farm Need to purchase maize Specialization of farm Grows cash crop Specialization of farm Type of house Type of current dwelling Keeps chicken Specialization of farm Owns goats Specialization of farm Owns cattle Specialization of farm Number of children supported Current relation with one's children Pension income Pension Monthly cash income Personal income Perceived financial deprevation in retirement Change to better or worse
Attitudes to retirement
Interviewer's affluence rating Relative to neighborhood Education Level of school-education Married or not Married state (compared to non-married states) Polygamist Polygamous marriage (vs monogamous) Christian religion Current religious denomination Traditionalist religion Current religious denomination Newcomer in community Recently moved Community role Current socio-economic status Health- satisfaction Satisfaction with health Perceived restrictions due to ill health Degree of restriction Access to a confidant Having a confident or not Activity index Perception of ageing gradually Attitude to ageing (getting older) Comparative happiness (relative to grandparents) Perceived difference with own happiness Evaluation of retirement Satisfaction with retirement Retirement meets expectations Attitudes to retirement Desire to return to work Attitudes to retirement Congruence aspirations/ achievements Perceived realization of specific life-goals Personal modernity Modern attitudes Joint effects_A Summed effects of current individual conditions (micro level) Joint effects _B Various combinations of current conditions Planning is key to succes in life Planning mindedness Preference for entrepreneurship in retirement Object of life-goals Feels young Subjective age (how old one feels) Perceived financial adequacy Subjective poverty Modern community leader Modern attitudes Achieved/confident of becoming wealthy Perceived realization of specific life-goals Life satisfaction O-HL by O-SL Modernity Modern attitudes Morale LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS Mood LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS