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Studies

Michalos (1986): study CA 1984

Publication

Author(s):
Michalos, A.C.
Title:
An Application of Multiple Discrepancies Theory (MDT) to Seniors.
Source:
Social Indicators Research, 1986, Vol. 18, 349 - 378

Investigation

Public:
60+ aged, rural districts, Canada, 1984
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 457
Non Response:
47%
Assessment:
Questionnaire: paper

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Selfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole right now.....?
7  delightful
6  very satisfying
5  satisfying
4  mixed
3  dissatisfying
2  very dissatisfying
1  terrible
No opinion

Name: Andrews & Withey's  `Delighted-Terrible Scale' ( modified version)
Classification:
O-DT-c-sq-v-7-aa
Author's label:
Satisfaction with life as a whole
Remarks:
M  = 5.40    SD  =  .88    skewness: -.54
Ms'= 7.33    SDs'= 1.47
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 0%,   2: 0%,   3: 0%,   4: 0%,   5: 0%,   6: 0%,   7: 0%
Summary Statistics
On original range 1 - 7 On range 0-10
Mean:
5.40 7.33
SD:
0.88
Full text:
Selfreport on single question:

Considering your life as a whole, would you describe it as....:?
1  very unhappy
2
|   unhappy
3
4  an even mixture of unhappiness and happiness
5
|  happy
6
7  very happy
no opinion
Classification:
O-HL-u-sq-v-7-a
Author's label:
Happiness
Remarks:
M  = 5.42    SD  = 1.26  skewness: -.12
Ms'= 7.37    SDs'= 2.10
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 0%,   2: 0%,   3: 0%,   4: 0%,   5: 0%,   6: 0%,   7: 0%
Summary Statistics
On original range 1 - 7 On range 0-10
Mean:
5.42 7.37
SD:
1.26

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Satisfaction with health Satisfaction with health Satisfaction with financial security Satisfaction with financial security Satisfaction with friendships Satisfaction with friends Satisfaction with housing Satisfaction with housing Satisfaction with spouse Satisfaction with marriage Self esteem Evaluation of self-as-a-whole Satisfaction sumscores Satisfaction with multiple domains of life Male sex Sex (male vs female) Chronological age Age difference among elderly Income Current income level (unspecified) Level of education Level of school-education Life compared with that of others Life compared with situation of others Life compared to that deserved Life compared with standard of fairness Life compared with needs Life compared with needs Life progress Life compared with expectations Life compared with best previous experience Life compared with earlier situation Life compared with wants Single-standard comparisons Joint effects Socio-demographic + life-appraisals