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Studies

Matlin (1966): study PR 1963

Publication

Author(s):
Matlin, N.
Title:
The Demography of Happiness.
Source:
University of Puerto Rico, Health & Welfare Series 2, nr. 3, 1966, Puerto Rico

Investigation

Public
20+ aged, general public, Puerto Rico, 1963-1964
Sample
Respondents
N = 1417
Non Response
Assessment
Interview: face-to-face
Structured interview

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Self report on single question:

Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are...?
3   very happy
2   fairly happy
1   not too happy
Classification:
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ab
Author's label:
Happiness
Page in publication:
5
Error estimates:
Reliability: Validity: External congruent validity. Validation sample of psychiatric patients appeared significantly less happy than average Puerto Ricans. (See MATLI 1966/2)
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 33%,   2: 50%,   3: 17%   (total 100%)
Summary Statistics
On original range 1 - 3 On range 0-10
Mean:
1.84 6.18
SD:
0.69 1.77
Full text:
Self report on 9 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....?  (yes/no)
B   So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C   Proud because someone complimented you on something  
     you had done?
D   Very lonely or remote from other people?
E   Pleased about having accomplished something?
F   Bored?
G   On top of the world?
H   Depressed or very unhappy?
I    That things were going your way?
J    Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no  = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): AC+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +4

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (adjusted version 'excited/interested' item dropped)
Classification:
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-c
Author's label:
Happiness
Remarks:
Possible range: -6(low) to +3(high);
Actual range: 15% score -3 or less; 19% score -1 or -2; 29% score 0; 23% score 1, 14% score 2 or 3
M =  -.38    Ms' =  6.2 -3 = 2.16"
Error estimates:
Reliablility: Equivalence positive items : Q ranging from +.36 to +.58 Equivalence negative items : Q ranging from +.66 to +.84 positive x negative items : Q ranging from -.05 to +.30 positive affect score x negative affect score: G' = -.14 (01) Validity: External congruent validity. Validation sample of psychiatric patients appeared significantly less happy than average Puerto Ricans. (See MATLI 1966/2)
Observed distribution
Summary Statistics
On original range -5 - 4 On range 0-10
Mean:
- 2.16
SD:
- -
Full text:
Self report on single question:

" Are you most of the time in ....?"
4 very good spirits    
3 good spirits
2 low spirits           
1 very low spirits
Classification:
A-AOL-g-sq-v-4-c
Author's label:
Spirits

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Pleased at accomplishment Feeling self-confident (vs inadequate) Proud of compliment Feeling self-confident (vs inadequate) Lonely or remote Feeling lonely (vs not) Bored Feeling interested Restless Feeling tranquil (vs restless) Uneasy Feeling cheerful (vs gloomy) Depresssed or unhappy Feeling down (vs not) On top of the world Mood during the interview Inertia Feeling energetic (vs lethargic, tired) Age Current age (in years) Educational level Level of school-education Male sex Sexe: male (vs female) Affect Balance O-HL by A-AB Physical ailments Number of health complaints Self-perceived health Global health self-rating Feeling restless Feeling tranquil (vs restless) Feeling uneasy Feeling secure (vs threatened) Mental disturbances In ambulatory treatment
Being in treatment for mental disorder (vs not)
Income Current income level (unspecified) Married vs never married Married vs never married Married vs widowed Married vs widowed Married vs divorced Married vs divorced Married vs separated Married vs separated Living as married vs. formally married Formally-married vs living-as-married Living as married vs widowed Living-as-married (vs widowed) Living as married vs. never married Living-as-married (vs never married) Never married widowed Never married (vs widowed) Never married vs divorced Never married (vs divorced) Never married separated Nevermarried (vs separated) Widowed vs divorced Widowed (vs divorced) Widowed vs separated Widow (vs separated) Divorced vs separated Divorced (vs separated) Economic prosperity of the country Economic affluence in nation Being in good spirits A-AOL by A-AB Enjoying life Perceived difference with own happiness Living as married vs divorced Living-as-married (vs divorced) Living as married vs separated Living-as-married (vs separated)