Ludwig (1971): study US 1966
- Ludwig, L.D.
- Elation-Depression and Skill as Determinants of Desire for Excitement.
- Unpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1971, USA
- Female students, undergraduates, University of Wisconsin, USA, 196?
- N = 72
- Non Response
- 81%; 61% refusal, 5% eliminated on basis of screening data, 15% miscellaneous re
Multiple assesment methods
Structured questionnaires, tests; and interview.
Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings
- Full text:
Self report on 4 questions:
"The following are statements of feelings or mood. Please read them over and then indicate which of these overall feelings best describes your feelings."
A) Right now you feel .........
B) The best you felt today ....
C) The worst you felt today ...
D) The way you usually feel ...
10. Complete elations, rapturous joy, and soaring ecstasy.
9. Very elated and in very high spirits; tremendous delight
8. Elated and in high spirits.
7. Feeling very good and cheerful.
6. Feeling pretty good, "OK".
5. Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so.
4. Spirits low and somewhat blue.
3. Depressed and feeling very low. Definitely blue.
2. Tremendously depressed. Feeling terrible, really miserable,
1. Utter depression and gloom. Completely down. All is black
and leaden. Wish it were all over.
Summation: average scores on A,B,C,D.
Name: Elation-Depression Scale (variant)
- Author's label:
- Trait elation-depression.
- Observed distribution
- Summary Statistics
- On original range 0 - 0 On range 0-10
- 6.17 -
- - -
Change in self-image