Ludwig (1971): study US 1966


Ludwig, L.D.
Elation-Depression and Skill as Determinants of Desire for Excitement.
Unpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1971, USA


Female students, undergraduates, University of Wisconsin, USA, 196?
N =
Non Response
81%; 61% refusal, 5% eliminated on basis of screening data, 15% miscellaneous re
Multiple assesment methods
Structured questionnaires, tests; and interview.

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Self report on 4 questions:

"The following are statements of feelings or mood. Please read them over and then indicate which of these overall feelings best describes your feelings."
A)  Right now you feel .........
B)  The best you felt today ....
C)  The worst you felt today ...
D)  The way you usually feel ...

Response options:
10. Complete elations, rapturous joy, and soaring ecstasy.
9.   Very elated and in very high spirits; tremendous delight     
      and buoyancy.
8.   Elated and in high spirits.
7.   Feeling very good and cheerful.
6.   Feeling pretty good, "OK".
5.   Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so.
4.   Spirits low and somewhat blue.
3.   Depressed and feeling very low. Definitely blue.
2.   Tremendously depressed. Feeling terrible, really miserable,
      "just awful".
1.   Utter depression and gloom. Completely down. All is black
      and leaden. Wish it were all over.

Summation: average scores on A,B,C,D.

Name: Elation-Depression Scale (variant)
Author's label:
Trait elation-depression.

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Depression Depressive (f31-33) Number of leading roles played in a play Taking leading roles
Dominant behavior
Tranquillity Feeling morally good (vs guilty) Desire for excitement_B Sensation seeking Desire to participate in exciting activities Sensation seeking Desire for participation in boring activities Sensation seeking Self-esteem Relative superiority Desire for participation in social activities Concern about organizational participation Perceived acting ability Self-perceived ability Elated mood during experiment Prior mood-manipulation Numbering speed Current specific mental abilities Desire for excitement_A Sensation seeking Writing firmness Writing firmness
Self-perceived creativity and maturity Self-perceived creativeness
Change in self-image
Self-perceived maturity
Relative superiority