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Studies

Ludwig (1970): study US 1965

Publication

Author(s):
Ludwig, L.D.
Title:
Intra- and Inter-Individual Relationships between Elation-Depression and Desire for Excitement.
Source:
Journal of Personality, 1970, Vol. 38, 167 - 176

Investigation

Public:
University students, University of Wisconsin, USA, 196?
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 45
Non Response:
Assessment:
Questionnaire: paper
Every night for 20 days.

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Selfreport on single question, answered every evening before retiring during six weeks (experience sampling)

"On average;  how elated or depressed,  happy or unhappy you felt today....?
10  Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstasy
9    Very elated and in very high spirits.   Tremendous
      delight and buoyancy
8    Elated and in high spirits
7    Feeling very good and cheerful
6    Feeling pretty good , "OK"
5    Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so
4    Spirits low and somewhat 'blue'
3    Depressed and feeling very low.
      Definitely 'blue'
2    Tremendously depressed.
      Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful"
1    Utter depression and gloom. Completely down.
      All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over.

Name:  Wessman & Ricks'  `Elation - depression scale'
Classification:
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b
Author's label:
Elation.

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Tranquility Feeling tranquil (vs restless) Desire for excitement Sensation seeking Excitement Attitudes to own activity pattern
Feeling tranquil (vs restless)