Ludwig (1970): study US 1965
- Ludwig, L.D.
- Intra- and Inter-Individual Relationships between Elation-Depression and Desire for Excitement.
- Journal of Personality, 1970, Vol. 38, 167 - 176
- University students, University of Wisconsin, USA, 196?
- N = 45
- Non Response:
Every night for 20 days.
Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings
- Full text:
Selfreport on single question, answered every evening before retiring during six weeks (experience sampling)
"On average; how elated or depressed, happy or unhappy you felt today....?
10 Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstasy
9 Very elated and in very high spirits. Tremendous
delight and buoyancy
8 Elated and in high spirits
7 Feeling very good and cheerful
6 Feeling pretty good , "OK"
5 Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so
4 Spirits low and somewhat 'blue'
3 Depressed and feeling very low.
2 Tremendously depressed.
Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful"
1 Utter depression and gloom. Completely down.
All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over.
Name: Wessman & Ricks' `Elation - depression scale'
- Author's label:
Feeling tranquil (vs restless)