Linn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984


Linn, J.G.; McGranahan, D.H.
Personal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
American Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100


Physicians, California, USA, 1984
Survey name
Unnamed study
Probability simple random sample
N = 211
Non Response
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)
Mailed questionnaire. Detail on measurement taken from Linn et all, 1986 'Health habits and coping behaviors among practicing physicians'. Western Journal of Medicine, 1986, vol. 144, 484-489

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Self report on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7  delighted
6  pleased
5  mostly satisfied
4  mixed
3  mostly dissatisfied
2  unhappy
1  terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale'  (original version)
Author's label:
Factors Associated WithLife Satisfaction
1% scored 1 or 2, precise scores in each category not reported
Page in publication:
Observed distribution
1: 0.5%,   2: 0.5%,   3: 4%,   4: 8%,   5: 23%,   6: 48%,   7: 16%   (total 100%)
Summary Statistics
On original range 1 - 7 On range 0-10
5.61 7.67
1.06 1.76

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Sex Sex: male (vs female) Age Current age (in years) Number of children Number of children Married Married state (compared to non-married states) Racial minority Ethnic status in the USA Amount of primary care (vs. specialist care) Characteristics of current occupation Number of vacation days in past year Leisure time
Current time-usage
Time off work
Task of physicians Characteristics of current occupation
Current time-usage
Academic (vs. clinical faculty) Current employment arrangement Rand Anxiety Scale score Anxious (f40) Zung Depression Scale score Depressive (f31-33) Number of chronic problems Amount of problems perceived
Disorders due to substance use (f10-f19)
Job satisfaction Satisfaction with work-as-a-whole Conflict between work and home life Kind of problems perceived
Perceived conflict between work and home life
Stress Kind of problems perceived
Problems at work
Religion Current religious beliefs Father's occupation Socio-economic background (earlier for adults, current for young) Health habits Current coping-style
Current healthy life-style
Health habits Current coping-style
Current healthy life-style
Active involvement in sports
Alcohol consumption Current coping-style
Use of alcohol
Sleeping Current coping-style
Amount of sleep
Use of tobacco Current coping-style
Use of tobacco
Eating regulary Current coping-style
Current nutrition
Snacking Current coping-style
Current nutrition
Psychotherapy Current coping
Treatment for mental disorder (clinical psychology, psychiatry)
Therapy seeking
Ways to increase one's happiness
Negative Coping Current coping-style Active Coping Current coping-style
Current religious practices
Current time-organization
Socializing Current coping-style
Current contacts with friends
Specific leisure activities
Current personal contacts
Restructuring practice Current coping-style
Current time-organization
Venting feelings with others Current coping-style
Style of self-disclosure
Sexual relations Current coping-style
Current sex-life
Behavioural pattern Summed socio-demographic + health + life style