Lichter et al. (1980): study NZ 1976


Lichter, S.; Haye, K.; Kammann, R.
Increasing Happiness through Cognitive Retraining.
New Zealand Psychologist, 1980, Vol. 9, 57 - 64


Psychology students, followed 2 weeks, University of Otago New Zealand, 1976
Survey name
Unnamed study
Non-probability chunk sample
N = 48
Non Response
Questionnaire: paper
Filled out alone

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Self report on 48 questions:

Over this period  I have had the feeling: (Timeframe chosen by subjects: mostly past few weeks)
A    Nothing goes right with me
B    I feel close to people around me
C    I feel as though the best years of my life are over
D    I feel my life is on the right track
E    I feel loved and trusted
F    My work gives me a lot of pleasure
G    I don't like myself
H    I feel very tense
I     I feel life isn't worth living
J     I am content with myself
K    My past life is filled with failure
L     Everything I do seems worthwhile
M    I can't be bothered doing anything
N    I feel I can do whatever I want to
O    I have lost interest in other people and don't care about
P    Everything is going right for me
Q    I can express my feelings and emotions towards other   
R    I'm easy going
S     I seem to bee left alone when I don't want to be
T     I wish I could change some parts of my life
U     I seem to have no real drive to do anything
V     The future looks good
W    I become very lonely
X     I can concentrate well on what I'm doing
Y     I feel out of place
Z     I think clearly and creatively
AA   I feel alone
AB   I feel free and easy
AC   I smile and laugh a lot
AD   I feel things are going my way
AE   The world seems a cold and impersonal place
AF    I feel I've made a mess of things again
AG   I feel like hiding away
AH   I feel confident about decisions I make
AI     I feel depressed for no apparent reason
AJ    I feel other people like me
AK   I feel like a failure
AL    I feel I'm a complete person
AM   I'm not sure I'm done the right thing
AN   My future looks good
AO    I'm making the most out of my life
AP    Everything is going right for me
AQ    I feel unimportant
AR    I feel as though there must be something wrong with me
AS    I don't feel like making the effort to do anything
AT    I feel confident in my dealings with the opposite sex
AU    I want to hurt those who have hurt me
AV    The results I have obtained make my efforts worthwhile

Answer options:
0  not at all
1  occasionally
2  some of the time
3  often
4  all of the time

- Positive Affect Score (PAS): mean positive items
- Negative Affect Score (NAS): mean negative items
- Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -4 to +4

Name: Kamman's Affectometer 1: version period unspecified
Author's label:
Affectometer 1, short form
Observed distribution
Summary Statistics
On original range -4 - 4 On range 0-10
0.40 5.50
1.20 -

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Happiness induction Actual changes in happiness
Mono sort
Multiple treatment moments
Cognitive reframing
Sumscore of domain- satisfactions Satisfaction with multiple domains of life Beck Depression Inventory Depressive (f31-33)