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Studies

Kainulainen (1998): study FI 1991

Publication

Author(s):
Kainulainen, S.
Title:
Elämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
Source:
Kuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland

Investigation

Public:
18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
Sample:
Probability sample (unspecified)
Respondents:
N = 2682
Non Response:
not rep
Assessment:
Questionnaire: paper

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Self report on single question:

How satisfying  do you find your life at the moment.....?
1  very dissatisfying
2  quite dissatisfying
3  not satisfying not dissatisfying
4  quite satisfying
5  very satisfying
Classification:
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-g
Author's label:
Satisfaction with Life (SWL)
Remarks:
Combined result of the 1991/'92  and the 1996 data. Average SWL-value in  1991/'92  = 3.82, that in 1996  increased to 3.89  (p < .10)
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 1.7%,   2: 5.8%,   3: 14.5%,   4: 61.2%,   5: 16.8%   (total 100%)
Summary Statistics
On original range 1 - 5 On range 0-10
Mean:
3.86
SD:
0.82

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Social Class Kind of occupation (profession) Financial problems (because of illness) Earlier sufficiency of income
Specific earlier life-events
Too high living costs (rent, mortage, loan etc.) `objective` poverty
Specific earlier life-events
Earlier sufficiency of income
Scantiness of unemployment benefit `objective` poverty
Specific earlier life-events
Earlier sufficiency of income
Being unemployed Unemployed involuntary Difficulties in supporting family `objective` poverty
Earlier sufficiency of income
Obligatory expenditure growing too heavy `objective` poverty
Earlier sufficiency of income
Low income Household income
Earlier level of income
Being heavily indebted Debts
Earlier sufficiency of income
Earlier life-events
Losing one's mind Current specific mental disorders (icd-10 classification)
Earlier mental health
Cut in unemployment benefit Change in source of income Falling outside the social welfare system Change in source of income Pain and suffering Pain
Burden of earlier life-events
Being neglected or forgotten Feeling lonely (vs not)
Earlier life-events
Inability to work Unfit for work
Earlier life-events
Earlier handicap
Unjust behaviour from the authorities Current victim status
Earlier life-events
Shortage of housing Concern about housing
Earlier life-events
Causing my family (close) problems Current climate
Earlier life-events
Cuts in social and health services Change in source of income Lack of privacy (in housing) Attitude to privacy
Household-composition career
Earlier life-events
Need for privacy
Scantiness of social allowance (disability etc.) Subjective poverty
Earlier sufficiency of income
Scantiness of health compensation Subjective poverty Becoming dependent upon others Change in freedom
Earlier life-events
Earlier sufficiency of income
Relations with parents
Characteristics of intimate-network
Inadequate facilities (in housing) Quality of current dwelling
Housing-career
Earlier life-events
Risky and dangerous surroundings (in housing) Quality of house
Housing-career
Earlier life-events
Scantiness of a pension Subjective poverty
Earlier sufficiency of income
Excessive drinking/drug abuse of someone near Current use of stimulants
Earlier life-events
Earlier victimization (ever victimized)
Characteristics of intimates
Losing my memory Current specific mental disorders (icd-10 classification)
Earlier mental health
Breaking off an important relationship Change in intimacy
Earlier life-events
Violent behaviour of someone near Earlier victimization (ever victimized)
Earlier life-events
Been a victim of violence outside home Earlier victimization (ever victimized)
Earlier life-events
Restless neighbourhood Current livability of local environment
Earlier residence
Cuts in child allowance or child benefits Change in source of income Worries over the life and future of own children Concern about family
Earlier life-events
Isolated living Living alone or not
Household-composition career
Earlier life-events
Disablement Current handicap
Change in handicap
Earlier life-events
Gone banktrup (or been near) Change in possessions
Specific earlier life-events
Debts
Difficulties in getting (medical) care Current medical consumption
Earlier health-behavior
Earlier life-events
Own divorce/separation Recent divorce/separation
Earlier life-events
Specific life-changes
Ever divorced/separated
Single parenthood Development of parental status
Single parent
Earlier life-events
Changes at work due to technical development Change in work-conditions
Earlier life-events
Earlier work-conditions
Conflicts, difficulties in social relations at work Problems at work
Earlier life-events
Earlier work-conditions
Disagreements with neighbours Earlier residence
Life-event career
Social contacts in vinicity
Cuts in health benefits Change in source of income Upbringing problems with own children Concerns about parenthood
Burden of earlier life-events
Been a victim of property crimes Victim of crime
Earlier life-events
Been offered drugs User career
Earlier life-events
Risk of death Earlier physical health
Earlier life-events
Distance to death
Having to go into institutional care Ever lived in an institutional setting
Earlier life-events
Sexe Sex (male vs female) Subjective health Global health rating Income sufficiency Sufficiency of current income Social group Current employment status
Involved in schooling or not
Current status: retired or not
Unemployed involuntary
Family situation Current household-composition
Single parent
Living alone or not
Living with children
Elderly in the household