Kainulainen (1998): study FI 1991


Kainulainen, S.
Elämäntapahtumat ja Elämään Tyytyväisyys eri Sosiaaliluokissa. (Life Events and Satisfaction with Life in Different Social Classes; Summary).
Kuopio University Publications, 1998, Finland


18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
Probability sample (unspecified)
N = 2682
Non Response
not rep
Questionnaire: paper

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Self report on single question:

How satisfying  do you find your life at the moment.....?
1  very dissatisfying
2  quite dissatisfying
3  not satisfying not dissatisfying
4  quite satisfying
5  very satisfying
Author's label:
Satisfaction with Life (SWL)
Combined result of the 1991/'92  and the 1996 data. Average SWL-value in  1991/'92  = 3.82, that in 1996  increased to 3.89  (p < .10)
Observed distribution
1: 1.7%,   2: 5.8%,   3: 14.5%,   4: 61.2%,   5: 16.8%   (total 100%)
Summary Statistics
On original range 1 - 5 On range 0-10
3.86 -
0.82 -

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Social Class Kind of occupation (profession) Financial problems (because of illness) Earlier sufficiency of income
Specific earlier life-events
Too high living costs (rent, mortage, loan etc.) Earlier sufficiency of income
`objective` poverty
Specific earlier life-events
Scantiness of unemployment benefit Earlier sufficiency of income
`objective` poverty
Specific earlier life-events
Being unemployed Unemployed involuntary Difficulties in supporting family Earlier sufficiency of income
`objective` poverty
Obligatory expenditure growing too heavy Earlier sufficiency of income
`objective` poverty
Low income Earlier level of income
Household income
Being heavily indebted Earlier sufficiency of income
Earlier life-events
Losing one's mind Earlier mental health
Current specific mental disorders (icd-10 classification)
Cut in unemployment benefit Change in source of income Falling outside the social welfare system Change in source of income Pain and suffering Burden of earlier life-events
Being neglected or forgotten Earlier life-events
Feeling lonely (vs not)
Inability to work Unfit for work
Earlier handicap
Earlier life-events
Unjust behaviour from the authorities Earlier life-events
Current victim status
Shortage of housing Concern about housing
Earlier life-events
Causing my family (close) problems Current climate
Earlier life-events
Cuts in social and health services Change in source of income Lack of privacy (in housing) Development of Household-composition
Attitude to privacy
Need for privacy
Earlier life-events
Scantiness of social allowance (disability etc.) Earlier sufficiency of income
Subjective poverty
Scantiness of health compensation Subjective poverty Becoming dependent upon others Relations with parents
Change in freedom
Earlier sufficiency of income
Characteristics of intimate-network
Earlier life-events
Inadequate facilities (in housing) Housing-career
Quality of current dwelling
Earlier life-events
Risky and dangerous surroundings (in housing) Housing-career
Quality of house
Earlier life-events
Scantiness of a pension Earlier sufficiency of income
Subjective poverty
Excessive drinking/drug abuse of someone near Earlier life-events
Current use of stimulants
Earlier victimization (ever victimized)
Characteristics of intimates
Losing my memory Earlier mental health
Current specific mental disorders (icd-10 classification)
Breaking off an important relationship Change in intimacy
Earlier life-events
Violent behaviour of someone near Earlier life-events
Earlier victimization (ever victimized)
Been a victim of violence outside home Earlier life-events
Earlier victimization (ever victimized)
Restless neighbourhood Earlier residence
Experienced restlessness of neighourhood
Cuts in child allowance or child benefits Change in source of income Worries over the life and future of own children Concern about family
Earlier life-events
Isolated living Development of Household-composition
Living alone or not
Earlier life-events
Disablement Change in handicap
Current handicap
Earlier life-events
Gone banktrup (or been near) Specific earlier life-events
Change in possessions
Difficulties in getting (medical) care Earlier health-behavior
Current medical consumption
Earlier life-events
Own divorce/separation Specific life-changes
Earlier life-events
Ever divorced/separated
Recent divorce/separation
Single parenthood Development of parental status
Earlier life-events
Single parent
Changes at work due to technical development Earlier life-events
Earlier work-conditions
Change in work-conditions
Conflicts, difficulties in social relations at work Earlier life-events
Problems at work
Conflicts at work
Disagreements with neighbours Life-event career
Earlier residence
Social contacts in vicinity
Cuts in health benefits Change in source of income Upbringing problems with own children Concerns about parenthood
Burden of earlier life-events
Been a victim of property crimes Earlier life-events
Victim of crime
Been offered drugs Earlier life-events
User career
Risk of death Earlier life-events
Earlier physical health
Distance to death
Having to go into institutional care Ever lived in an institutional setting
Earlier life-events
Sexe Sexe: male (vs female) Subjective health Global health self-rating Income sufficiency Sufficiency of current income Social group Current employment status
Unemployed involuntary
Current status: retired or not
Involved in schooling or not
Family situation Current household-composition
Living alone or not
Living with children
Single parent
Elderly in the household