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Studies

Hawkins & Booth (2005): study US 1980

Publication

Author(s):
Hawkins, D.N.; Booth, A.
Title:
Unhappily Ever After: Effects of Long-Term, Low-Quality Marriages on Well-Being.
Source:
Social Forces, 2005, Vol. 84, 451 - 471

Investigation

Public
Couples, USA, followed 12 years, 1980-1992
Sample
Probability simple random sample
Respondents
N = 1150
Non Response
35%
Assessment
Interview: Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI)

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Self report on single question:

Taking all things together, how would you say you are these days?  Would you say you are..........?
3   very happy
2   pretty happy
1   not too happy
Classification:
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ad
Author's label:
Overall happiness
Remarks:
Assessed at T1 (1980) and T4 (1992)
Page in publication:
456
Observed distribution
Summary Statistics
On original range 1 - 3 On range 0-10
Mean:
2.41 7.05
SD:
0.57 2.85

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Life satisfaction Later life-appraisals
Satisfaction with multiple domains of life
Self-esteem Earlier self-image
Evaluation of self-as-a-whole
Psychological Distress Earlier mental health
Later mental health
Scores on symptom inventories
Overall health Earlier physical health
Later physical health
Self-perceived health
Unhappily married Earlier satisfaction with current marriage-relationship
Satisfaction with later marriage-relationship(s)
Satisfaction with marriage
Continuously married Ever divorced/separated
Recent dissolution of marriage
Later dissolution of marriage
Divorced/Remarried Ever remarried
Recent re-marriage
Later re-marriage
Divorced/Unmarried Recent divorce/separation Age Current age (in years)
Long term happiness (< 10 years ago)
Gender Sexe: male (vs female) Race Ethnic status in the USA Education Later educational level
Years schooling
Family income Later level of income
Household income
Children Later children
Number of children
Stepchild Actually got children later (follow-up)
Step children
Religiosity Current religious beliefs Remarried Ever married before Cohabited Ever lived as married