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Studies

Hawkins & Booth (2005): study US 1980

Publication

Author(s):
Hawkins, D.N.; Booth, A.
Title:
Unhappily Ever After: Effects of Long-Term, Low-Quality Marriages on Well-Being.
Source:
Social Forces, 2005, Vol. 84, 451 - 471

Investigation

Public:
Couples, USA, followed 12 years, 1980-1992
Sample:
Probability simple random sample
Respondents:
N = 1150
Non Response:
35%
Assessment:
Interview: telephone (CATI)

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Selfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how would you say you are these days?  Would you say you are..........?
3   very happy
2   pretty happy
1   not too happy
Classification:
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ad
Author's label:
Overall happiness
Remarks:
Assessed at T1 (1980) and T4 (1992)
Page in publication:
456
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 0%,   2: 0%,   3: 0%
Summary Statistics
On original range 1 - 3 On range 0-10
Mean:
2.41 7.05
SD:
0.57 2.85

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Life satisfaction Later life-appraisals
Satisfaction with multiple domains of life
Self-esteem Earlier self-image
Evaluation of self-as-a-whole
Psychological Distress Earlier mental health
Later mental health
Scores on symptom inventories
Overall health Earlier physical health
Later physical health
Self-perceived health
Unhappily married Satisfaction with marriage
Earlier satisfaction with current marriage-relationship
Satisfaction with later marriage-relationship(s)
Continuously married Recent dissolution of marriage
Ever divorced/separated
Later dissolution of marriage
Divorced/Remarried Recent re-marriage
Ever remarried
Later re-marriage
Divorced/Unmarried Recent divorce/separation Age Current age (in years)
Long term happiness (< 10 years ago)
Gender Sex (male vs female) Race Ethnic status in the USA Education Years schooling
Later educational level
Family income Later level of income
Household income
Children Number of children
Later children
Stepchild Step children
Actually got children later (follow-up)
Religiosity Current religious beliefs Remarried Ever married before Cohabited Ever lived as married