Harkins (1978): study US 1973
- Harkins, E.B.
- Effects of Empty Nest Transition on Self-report of Psychological and Physical Well-Being.
- Journal of Marriage and the Family, 1978, Vol. 40, 549 -556
- Empty Nest mothers, USA, 1973-1974
- Probability multistage stratified area sample
- N = 475
- Non Response:
Interview: telephone (CATI)
Mail survey and telephone follow-ups
Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings
- Full text:
Selfreport on 10 questions:
During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly excited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?
Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5
Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
Stage of life
Leaving home of children (empty nest)