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Studies

Harkins (1978): study US 1973

Publication

Author(s):
Harkins, E.B.
Title:
Effects of Empty Nest Transition on Self-report of Psychological and Physical Well-Being.
Source:
Journal of Marriage and the Family, 1978, Vol. 40, 549 -556

Investigation

Public:
Empty Nest mothers, USA, 1973-1974
Sample:
Probability multistage stratified area sample
Respondents:
N = 475
Non Response:
33%
Assessment:
Interview: telephone (CATI)
Mail survey and telephone follow-ups

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Selfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....?  (yes/no)
A   Particularly excited or interested in something?
B   So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C   Proud because someone complimented you on something  
     you had done?
D   Very lonely or remote from other people?
E   Pleased about having accomplished something?
F   Bored?
G   On top of the world?
H   Depressed or very unhappy?
I    That things were going your way?
J    Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no  = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
Classification:
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Age Current age (in years) Menopausel phase Menopause
Stage of life
Empty Nest Stage of life
Leaving home of children (empty nest)
Specific life-changes