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Studies

Gundelach & Kreiner (2004): study ZZ Western Europe 1999

Publication

Author(s):
Gundelach, P.; Kreiner, S.
Title:
Happiness and Life Satisfaction in Advanced European Countries.
Source:
Cross-Cultural Research, 2004, Vol. 38, 359 - 386

Investigation

Public:
18 + aged, general public, 9 nations in Western Europe, 1999
Sample:
Non-probability purposive sample
Respondents:
N = 10517
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face
Iceland: face to face 74%; by phone 26% in remote areas.

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Self report on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days?
1   dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10  satisfied
Classification:
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a
Author's label:
self-rated life satisfaction
Page in publication:
364
Full text:
Self report on single question:

Taking all things together, would you say you are.....?
4  very happy
3  quite happy
2  not very happy
1  not at all happy.
Classification:
O-HL-u-sq-v-4-a
Author's label:
self-rated happiness
Remarks:
Netherlands:      M =  3,42 , SD = 0,57
Denmark:          M =  3,40,  SD =  0,58
Iceland:             M =  3,32 , SD =  0,61
Belgium             M =   3,34, SD =  0,65  
Sweden              M =   3,29, SD =   0,61
Austria               M =   3,26, SD =   0,65
Finland              M =   3,14, SD =   0,59
West-Germany  M =   3,05, SD =  0,59
East-Germany   M =  2,95, SD =  0,7
Page in publication:
364, 374

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Perceived freedom and control in life Amount of restrictions perceived
Inner locus of control
Living in a stable relationship Living alone or not
Married state (compared to non-married states)
Country of residence Current nation of residence Happiness O-HL by O-SL Social capital in country Social cohesion in nation Personal ties in country Intimate relations in nation Norm for expressing extreme opinions Apparent average livability in nation
Extremity in nation
Social stigma attached to being single Perceived level of happiness of specific social categories
Attitude to living alone
Value climate in the nation
Household income Household income Spending time with friends Current contacts with friends