Gorman (1971): study US 1970


Gorman, B.S.
A Multivariate Study of the Relationship of Cognitive Control and Cognitive Style Principles to Reported Daily Mood Experiences.
Unpublished PhD Dissertation, The City University of New York, 1971, USA


Undergraduate students, Nassau Community College, USA, 1970
N = 67
Non Response
4%, 3% refusal, 1% incomplete information
Multiple assesment methods
Questionnaires administered in class and daily records kept at home during 28 days

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Self report on single question, answered every evening before retiring during six weeks (experience sampling)

"On average;  how elated or depressed,  happy or unhappy you felt today....?
10  Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstasy
9    Very elated and in very high spirits.   Tremendous
      delight and buoyancy
8    Elated and in high spirits
7    Feeling very good and cheerful
6    Feeling pretty good , "OK"
5    Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so
4    Spirits low and somewhat 'blue'
3    Depressed and feeling very low.
      Definitely 'blue'
2    Tremendously depressed.
      Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful"
1    Utter depression and gloom. Completely down.
      All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over.

Name:  Wessman & Ricks'  `Elation - depression scale'
Author's label:
Observed distribution
Summary Statistics
On original range 1 - 10 On range 0-10
5.41 6.00
0.71 -
Full text:
Self report on single question:

"Above you see a numbered ladder. Consider the top of the ladder as the best possible life and the bottom of the ladder as the worst possible life.
A  Please place an X where you feel you are now.
B  Place an Y at the point where you were five years ago.
C  Please place a Z at the point that you feel you will be at five years from now.
[  10  ]  best possible life
[    9  ]
[    8  ]
[    7  ]
[    6  ]
[    5  ]
[    4  ]
[    3  ]
[    2  ]
[    1  ]
[    0  ]  worst possible life

Question A is the case question.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (modified version)
Author's label:
Observed distribution
Summary Statistics
On original range 0 - 10 On range 0-10
6.37 6.37
1.67 1.67

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Mood differentiation and complexity Complexity of affect-pattern Shallow affect Intensity of affects Mood fluctuation Variability of affects Companionship vs being isolated Feeling close (vs remote) Hedonic level of most elated moments Intensity of affects Hedonic level of most depressed moments Intensity of affects Energy vs fatigue Feeling energetic (vs lethargic, tired) Harmony vs anger Feeling friendly (vs hostile) Impulse expression vs self-restraint Feeling free from inner restraints Love and sex Feeling love (vs not) Personal freedom vs external constraint Feeling free from external restraints Personal moral judgement Feeling morally good (vs guilty) Present work Satisfaction with work-as-a-whole Receptivity towards the world Feeling receptive Confidence vs feel- ing of inadequacy Feeling self-confident (vs inadequate) Own sociability vs withdrawal Feeling sociable (vs withdrawn) Thought processes Feeling clear (vs dull, confused) Tranquility vs anxiety Feeling tranquil (vs restless) Object sorting ability_B Sorting ability Nation sorting ability_B Sorting ability Nation sorting ability_A Sorting ability Category width Sorting ability Language facility Verbal ability Mood word fluency Verbal ability Field independence_A Field independence Field Independence_B Field independence Field Independence_C Field independence Rigidity_C Perceptual rigidity Rigidity_B Perceptual rigidity Rigidity_A Perceptual rigidity
Male sex Sex: male (vs female) Perceived happiness 5 years ago In recent past Expected happiness 5 years from now In the near future (up to 5 years) Perceived improvement of life Recent change Expected improvementof life In the near future (up to 5 years) Subjective confidence and hope In the near future (up to 5 years) Self-perceived physical health Feeling healthy Marijuana usage Use of marihuana, hash Amphetamine usage Use of amphetamines Barbiturate usage Use of barbiturates Amount of sleep Amount of sleep External locus of control_A Inner locus of control External locus of control_B Inner locus of control Repression Defensive Social desirability Approval seeking Sensation seeking Sensation seeking External sensation seeking Sensation seeking Internal sensation seeking Sensation seeking Temporal orientation Current time-perception Day to day variability in specific moods Variability of affects Variability in ela- tion vs depression, day to day Variability of affects Object sorting ability_A Sorting ability Elation vs depression A-ARE by C-BW Alcohol usage Use of alcohol Pressure of academicwork Perceived pressure of school-work
Current hassles