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Studies

Goldsmith & Campos (1990): study US Denver, Colorado

Publication

Author(s):
Goldsmith, H.H.; Campos, J.J.
Title:
The Structure of Temporal Fear and Pleasure in Infants: A Psychometric Perspective.
Source:
Child Development, 1990, Vol. 61, 1944 - 1964

Investigation

Public:
9 months aged, infants, Denver, United States, 198?
Survey name:
Unnamed study
Sample:
Non-probability purposive sample
Respondents:
N = 168
Non Response:
Assessment:
Behavioural observation
Twins were assessed with the other twin present in room. Mother & father completed Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ) independently from one another at home.

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Time sampling of happy behaviors

Analysis of video recordings of child reactions in 4 situations
-  Peekgaboo game
   - with mother
   - with experimenter
-  Walking finger game
   - with mother
   - with experimenter

Each episode rated for the amount of pleasure during that period.
Classification:
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-3-b
Author's label:
Joy/pleasure (broad)
Page in publication:
1956
Error estimates:
2-week stability: r=+.55, p<.05, one-tailed
Full text:
Time sampling of happy behaviors

Analysis of video recordings of child reactions in 4 situations
-  Peekgaboo game
   - with mother
   - with experimenter
-  Walking finger game
   - with mother
   - with experimenter

Each measured in seconds:
a: latency to smile
b: duration of smiling
or rated on 3-step scale:
c: peak intensity of smile

Computation: (a+b+c)/3
Classification:
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-3-ba
Author's label:
Joy/smiling (narrow)
Page in publication:
1956
Error estimates:
2-week stability correlations - peek (to mother): r=+.42 - peek (to experimenter): r=+.37 - Walking Finger (to mother): r=+.35 - Walking Finger (to experiementer): r=+.20 (all significant at p<.05, one-tailed) correlation among laboratory composites and IBQ scale: paternal: +.19 maternal: +.23
Full text:
Time sampling of happy behaviors

Analysis of video recordings of child reactions in 4 situations
-  Peekgaboo game
   - with mother
   - with experimenter
-  Walking Finger game
   - with mother
   - with experimenter

Each measured in seconds:
a: latency to laugh
b: duration of laughing

Computation: (a+b)/2
Classification:
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-3-bb
Author's label:
Joy/laughter (narrow)
Page in publication:
1956
Error estimates:
2-week stability correlations - peek (to mother): r=+.50 - peek (to experimenter): r=+.50 - Walking Finger (to mother): r=+.26 - Walking Finger (to experiementer): r=+.46 (all significant at p<.05, one-tailed) correlation among laboratory composites and IBQ scale: paternal: +.02 maternal: +.11
Full text:
Rating by parents of smiling and laughter in 15 different situations, such as

During the last week, when being undressed, how often did your child smile or laugh?
1  never
2  very rarely
3  less than half the time
4  about half the time
5  more than half the time
6  almost always
7  always

Full list of situations not reported

Part of Rothbart Infant Behavior Questionnaire IBQ
Classification:
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-a
Author's label:
Smiling and laughter
Page in publication:
1956
Error estimates:
reliability: +.73

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding 2-week stability Recent happiness (< 1 year ago) Fear Current affective life
Anxious
Distress to Limitations Irritable
Tense
Soothability Current coping
Calm
Duration of Orienting Interested Activity level Active