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Studies

Fernandez & Kulik (1981): study US 1973

Publication

Author(s):
Fernandez, R.M.; Kulik, J.C.
Title:
A Multilevel Model of Life Satisfaction: Effects of Individual Characteristics and Neighborhood Composition.
Source:
American Sociological Review, 1981, Vol. 46, 840 - 850

Investigation

Public:
18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973-1974
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 5916
Non Response:
?
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Selfreport on single question:

'How satisfied would you say you are with your life as a whole ....?'
4  completely satisfied
3  very satisfied
2  moderately satisfied
1  slightly satisfied
0  not satisfied at all
Classification:
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-c
Author's label:
Life-satisfaction
Remarks:
Range 0-4: M = 2.8  SD = .89  Transformed to range 0-10: Ms' = 7.1
When disattenuated for day to day noise (unreliability): M = 2.8, SD = 0.84
Error estimates:
Reliability: Retest reliablity over 8 month: r =+.43 This retest-coefficient is used for computing 'disattenuated' correlations (estimates of the true correlation if inaccuracy in report of happiness did not depress observed correlation) Validity: External congruent validity apparent in high multiple correlation with set of following variables: 1) satisfaction with: housing, neighborhood, finance, work and marriage 2) Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (AFF 2.3) 3) direct question on happiness (HAP 1.1) R =.54
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 0%,   2: 0%,   3: 0%,   4: 0%,   5: 0%
Summary Statistics
On original range 0 - 4 On range 0-10
Mean:
2.80 7.10
SD:
0.89

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Family size Number of persons in household Male sex Sex (male vs female) White race Ethnic status in the USA Married status Married vs never married Health status Global health rating Education Level of school-education Divorced/separated Vs divorced Age Current age (in years) Family income Household income Relative age Social homogeneity in vinicity
Age distribution in vinicity
Relative age
Relative income Social homogeneity in vinicity
Relative to neighborhood
Inequality ratio Social homogeneity in vinicity
Income difference in vinicity
Racial composition of neighbourhood Social homogeneity in vinicity
Ethnic diversity in vinicity
Cost of living in neighborhood Costs of living in vinicity Urban living Community size Joint effects Socio-demographic + environmental factors