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Studies

Emde et al. (1992): study US Colorado 1986

Publication

Author(s):
Emde, R.N.; Campos, J.J.; Corley, R.P.; DeFries, J.; Fulker, D. W.; Kagan, J.; Plomin, R.; Reznick, J.S.; Robinson, J.L.; Zahn-Waxler, C.
Title:
Temperament, Emotion, and Cognition at Fourteen Months: The MacArthur Longitudinal Twin Study
Source:
Child Development, Vol. 63, No. 6 (Dec., 1992), pp.1437-1455

Investigation

Public:
14 months aged, same-sex twin pairs, Colorado, United States, 1986-1989
Sample:
Non-probability purposive sample
Respondents:
N = 398
Non Response:
Assessment:
Behavioural observation
At 14 months: observation at home, 2 weeks later observation in laboratory

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Time sampled ratings of positive and negative affect made from video recordings of child behavior; 30 second intervals across 15 minutes of free play and 1minute intervals for 4 alternate 5 minute segments of the Bayley test

Assessment of discrete behaviors; observation schedule not reported

Rated on 4 step scale, scale labels not reported
Classification:
A-AB-mi-tsb-?-4-a
Author's label:
Hedonic tone, positive and negative
Remarks:
Affect Balance computed by WDH team;
Positive Affect: M=2.32 sd=.25
Negative Affect: M=1.37 sd=.32
Page in publication:
1443, 1446
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 0%,   2: 0%,   3: 0%,   4: 0%
Summary Statistics
On original range 1 - 4 On range 0-10
Mean:
0.95
Full text:
Time sampling of prevalent mood during free play and Bayley test. Average of observations at 30 second intervals across 15 minutes of free play and 1 minute intervals for 4 alternate 5 minute segments of the Bayley test

Rated on 7 step scale, scale labels not reported
Classification:
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-7-a
Author's label:
Overall mood
Page in publication:
1443, 1446
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 0%,   2: 0%,   3: 0%,   4: 0%,   5: 0%,   6: 0%,   7: 0%
Summary Statistics
On original range 1 - 7 On range 0-10
Mean:
4.75
SD:
1.10

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Happiness of Twin siblings Happiness of siblings
Happiness of sibblings