Costa & McCrae (1980): study US 1976
- Costa, P.T.; McCrae, R.R.
- Influence of Extraversion and Neuroticism on Subjective Well-Being: Happy and Unhappy People.
- Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1980, Vol. 38, 668 - 678
- 35-85 aged white males (largely veterans), USA, 1976
- N = 1100
- Non Response
- T1:21%; T2:18%; T3:27%; T4:46%
Mailed questionnaire att intervals of 3 months
Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings
- Full text:
Self report on 10 questions, repeated four times at 3 months intervals:
"During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....?" (yes/no)
A Particularly excited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?
Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5
Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
- Author's label:
- Subjective well-being; happiness