Costa & McCrae (1980): study US 1965
- Costa, P.T.; McCrae, R.R.
- Influence of Extraversion and Neuroticism on Subjective Well-Being: Happy and Unhappy People.
- Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1980, Vol. 38, 668 - 678
- 25-75 aged white males (largely veterans), followed 10 years, USA, 1965-76
- N = 234
- Non Response:
Mailed questionnaires at ten years interval
Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings
- Full text:
Selfreport on10 questions asked 4 times a year at 3 month intervals.
"During the past few weeks, did you ever feel.....?" (yes/no)
A Particularly excited, or interested in something?
B So restless that you could not sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
G On top of the world?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?
Scoring: yes = 1, no is = 0
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible: range: -5 to +5
Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale'
- Author's label:
- Subjective well-being; happiness
Earlier mental health