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Studies

Costa & McCrae (1980): study US 1965

Publication

Author(s):
Costa, P.T.; McCrae, R.R.
Title:
Influence of Extraversion and Neuroticism on Subjective Well-Being: Happy and Unhappy People.
Source:
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1980, Vol. 38, 668 - 678

Investigation

Public:
25-75 aged white males (largely veterans), followed 10 years, USA, 1965-76
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 234
Non Response:
Assessment:
Questionnaire: paper
Mailed questionnaires at ten years interval

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Selfreport on10 questions asked 4 times a year at 3 month intervals.

"During the past few weeks, did you ever feel.....?" (yes/no)
A  Particularly excited, or interested in something?
B  So restless that you could not sit long in a chair?
C  Proud because someone complimented you on something you had done?
D  Very lonely or remote from people?
E  Pleased about having accomplished something?
F  Bored?
G  On top of the world?
H  Depressed?
I  That things were going your way?
J  Upset because someone criticized you?  

Scoring: yes = 1, no is = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS):  A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible: range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale'
Classification:
A-BB-cy-mq-v-2-a
Author's label:
Subjective well-being; happiness

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Neuroticism Earlier psycho-somatic complaints
Earlier neurotocism
Earlier mental health
Extraversion Earlier extraversion