Costa et al. (1987a): study US 1971
- Costa, P.T.; McCrae, R.R.; Zonderman, A.B.
- Longitudinal Analyses of Psychological Well-Being in a National Sample: Stability of Mean Levels.
- Journal of Gerontology, 1987, Vol. 42, 50 - 55
- 25-74 aged, USA, followed 9 years, 1971-1984
- Probability multistage stratified area sample
- N = 4942
- Non Response:
A booklet completed by participants with help from interviewers if required.
Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings
- Full text:
Self report on 8 questions
A Have you been under or felt you were under any strain, stress or pressure during the past month?
B Have you been anxious, worried, or upset during the past month?
C Have you been feeling emotionally stable and sure of yourself, during the past month?
D How relaxed or tense have you been during the past month?
E How depressed or cheerful have you been, during the past month?
F How have you been feeling in general during the past month?
G How happy, satisfied or pleased have you been with your personal life, during the past month?
H How much energy, pep, vitality have you felt, during the past month?
Rating: 0-5 scale with verbally labeled response options
Computation: (C+F+G+H) - (A+B+D+E)
Name: Shortened General Wellbeing Schedule (GWB)
- Author's label:
- General well-being schedule (GWB
- Means computed by us subtracting Negative Affect from Positive Affect score:
T1: 12.73 (PA) - 9.67 (NA) = 3.06 (ABS)
T2: 12.93 (PA) - 9.80 (NA) = 3.13 (ABS)
- Page in publication:
- Observed distribution
- Summary Statistics
- On original range 0 - 0 On range 0-10
- 3.10 -
- - -