print

Studies

Costa et al. (1987a): study US 1971

Publication

Author(s):
Costa, P.T.; McCrae, R.R.; Zonderman, A.B.
Title:
Longitudinal Analyses of Psychological Well-Being in a National Sample: Stability of Mean Levels.
Source:
Journal of Gerontology, 1987, Vol. 42, 50 - 55

Investigation

Public:
25-74 aged, USA, followed 9 years, 1971-1984
Sample:
Probability multistage stratified area sample
Respondents:
N = 4942
Non Response:
30%
Assessment:
Questionnaire: paper
A booklet completed by participants with help from interviewers if required.

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Self report on 8 questions

A Have you been under or felt you were under any strain, stress or pressure during the past month?
B  Have you been anxious, worried, or upset during the past month?
C  Have you been feeling emotionally stable and sure of yourself, during the past month?
D  How relaxed or tense have you been during the past month?
E  How depressed or cheerful have you been, during the past month?
F  How have you been feeling in general during the past month?
G  How happy, satisfied or pleased have you been with your personal life, during the past month?
H   How much energy, pep, vitality have you felt, during the past month?

Rating: 0-5 scale with verbally labeled response options

Computation: (C+F+G+H) - (A+B+D+E)

Name: Shortened General Wellbeing Schedule (GWB)
Classification:
A-BB-cm-mq-v-6-a
Author's label:
General well-being schedule (GWB
Remarks:
Means computed by us subtracting Negative Affect from Positive Affect score:
T1: 12.73 (PA)  -  9.67 (NA)  =  3.06 (ABS)    
T2: 12.93 (PA)  -  9.80  (NA) =  3.13 (ABS)
Page in publication:
50-51
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 0%,   2: 0%,   3: 0%,   4: 0%,   5: 0%,   6: 0%
Summary Statistics
On original range 0 - 0 On range 0-10
Mean:
3.10

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Birth cohort (cross sequentional analysis) Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)