print

Studies

Costa et al. (1981): study US 1958

Publication

Author(s):
Costa, P.T.; McCrae, R.R.; Morris, A.H.
Title:
Personal Adjustment to Aging: Longitudinal Prediction from Neuroticism and Extraversion.
Source:
Journal of Gerontology, 1981, Vol. 36, 78 - 85

Investigation

Public:
17-97 aged males, visitors of the Gerontology Research Centre, followed ± 10 years Baltimore, USA. 1958-70
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 117
Non Response:
Attrition 79% at T3, mostly among psychologically least adjusted
Assessment:
Questionnaire: paper
Filled in during visit at Research Centre.

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Selfreport on single question:

How do you feel about what you have accomplished in life...?
3  well satisfied
2  reasonable satisfied
1  dissatisfied:
Classification:
C-A-h-sq-v-3-a
Author's label:
Satisfaction with accomplishments
Error estimates:
Retest reliability : - T1-T2 (average 5.3 years) r= +.49 (001) - T1-T3 (average 12.6 years) r= +.46 (001)

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Extraversion Extraverted
Earlier inner-control
Thinking introversion Earlier inner-control
Extraverted
Past contentment Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Long term happiness (< 10 years ago)
Neuroticism Earlier mental health
Earlier psycho-somatic complaints
Scores on symptom inventories
Neurotic (f48)