Constantinople (1965): study US 1965


Constantinople, A.P.
Some Correlates of Happiness and Unhappiness in College Students.
Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, 1965, University of Rochester, USA


College students, University of Rochester, USA, 196?
N = 952
Non Response
30% (take home questionnaire).
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)
Questionnaires completed in c lass and at home

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Self report on single question:

In thinking over the past year, indicate how elated or depressed, happy or unhappy you have felt in the last year?
10  Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstasy
9    Very elated and in very high spirits. Tremendous  delight       
      and buoyancy.
8    Elated and in high spirits.
7    Feeling very good and cheerful.
6    Feeling pretty good , "OK".
5    Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so.
4    Spirits low and somewhat "blue".
3    Depressed and feeling very low. Definitely "blue".
2    Tremendously depressed.
      Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful".
1    Utter depression and gloom. Completely down.
      All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over.
Author's label:
Error estimates:
Reliability: Retest-reliability: In pilot study (N = 152): r=+.85 between two administrations of the scale occurring two weeks apart. Validity: Congruent validity: In pilot study (N=152) correlations of the instrument with the Nowlis (1965) MACL surgency plus Elation factors administered 4 times were +.30 for males and +.48 for females. In the same pilot study correlations with the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability scale were +.02 (ns) for males and +.20 (ns) for females.
Observed distribution
Summary Statistics
On original range 1 - 10 On range 0-10
5.90 5.40
- -

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Companionship vs being isolated Feeling close (vs remote) Energy vs fatigue Feeling energetic (vs lethargic, tired) Fullness vs emptiness of life Feeling full (vs empty) Harmony vs anger Feeling friendly (vs hostile) Impulse expression vs self-restraint Feeling free from inner restraints Love and sex Love-feelings Personal freedom vs external constraint Feeling free from external restraints Personal moral judgment Feeling morally good (vs guilty) Present work Satisfaction with work-as-a-whole Receptivity to the world Feeling receptive Self-confidence Feeling self-confident (vs inadequate) Sociability vs withdrawal Feeling sociable (vs withdrawn) Social respect vs social contempt Feeling respectable (vs rejected) Thought processes Feeling clear (vs dull, confused) Tranquility vs anxiety Feeling tranquil (vs restless) Academic status_C Verbal ability Satisfaction with university Satisfaction with school-facilities
Build environment
Attitude toward college Perceived usefulness of schooling Academic status_B Verbal ability Academic status_A School-success Academic status (discrepancy betweenaptitude and achiev. School-success Stage of study Current stage in school-career Psycho-social development Current stage of development Male sex Sex: male (vs female)