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Studies

Caudill & Weinstein (1969): study ZZ East-West pairs 1961

Publication

Author(s):
Caudill, W.C.; Weinstein, H.
Title:
Maternal Care and Infant Behavior in Japan and America.
Source:
Psychiatry, 1969, Vol. 32, 12 - 43

Investigation

Public:
Infants and first born in intact middle class families, Japan and USA, 1961-64
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 60
Non Response:
Assessment:
Behavioural observation
Observation of mothers and infants at home

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Time sampling of happy behaviors:

Researchers observed the baby's in the home.
One observation of one second was made every fifteenth second. Any positively voiced sound as observed by the researcher counted as a happy vocal and any negatively voiced sound counted as a unhappy vocal.
Classification:
A-CA-mi-tsb-v-0-a
Author's label:
Total vocal
Error estimates:
Reliability: Reliability was tested with the investigator as "constant" observer as compared to the observer in Japan and the observer in the USA. Happy vocal: Japan 70% agreement per case. USA 70% agreement per case. Unhappy vocal: Japan 89% agreement per case. USA 88% agreement per case. Validity:

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Nationality Comparison of non-representative nation-samples Father's occupation Parents occupation Male sex Sex (male vs female)