Caudill & Weinstein (1969): study ZZ East-West pairs 1961
- Caudill, W.C.; Weinstein, H.
- Maternal Care and Infant Behavior in Japan and America.
- Psychiatry, 1969, Vol. 32, 12 - 43
- Infants and first born in intact middle class families, Japan and USA, 1961-64
- N = 60
- Non Response:
Observation of mothers and infants at home
Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings
- Full text:
Time sampling of happy behaviors:
Researchers observed the baby's in the home.
One observation of one second was made every fifteenth second. Any positively voiced sound as observed by the researcher counted as a happy vocal and any negatively voiced sound counted as a unhappy vocal.
- Author's label:
- Total vocal
- Error estimates:
- Reliability: Reliability was tested with the investigator as "constant" observer as compared to the observer in Japan and the observer in the USA. Happy vocal: Japan 70% agreement per case. USA 70% agreement per case. Unhappy vocal: Japan 89% agreement per case. USA 88% agreement per case. Validity: