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Studies

Calvo et al. (2007): study US 1992

Publication

Author(s):
Calvo, E.; Haverstick, K.; Sass, S.
Title:
What Makes Retirees Happier: A Gradual or 'Cold Turkey' Retirement?
Source:
MPRA Paper No. 5607, Center for Retirement Research at Boston College, 2007, USA

Investigation

Public:
Eldery, United States, followed through retirement 1992-2004
Sample:
Selection from general population sample
Respondents:
N = 2389
Non Response:
25%; from 3022 (fully retired in 2004) to 2389.
Assessment:
Questionnaire: paper

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Selfreport on 5 questions:

Now think about the past week and the feelings you have experienced. Please tell me if each of the following was true for you much of the time past week. Much of the time ..
A  You were happy
B  You enjoyed life
C  Yoy felt lonely
D  You felt depressed
E  You felt sad

Rated:
1  yes
0  no

Computation of state: latent variable
Classification:
A-AB-cw-mq-v-2-b
Author's label:
Latent affect
Remarks:
Score: A/2+B/2-C/3-D/3-E/3. Maximum: +1; Minimum: -1.

CHANGE in Happiness:
Measurement of CHANGE in happiness (affect) between last assessment during full-time employment and first assessment during full-time retirement. Per item: no change is 0; a postive change is +1 and a negative change is -1. Theoretical individual range for this change is -5- to +5.
Page in publication:
6,7
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 0%,   2: 0%
Summary Statistics
On original range -1 - 1 On range 0-10
Mean:
0.29 6.47
SD:
0.23 1.15

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Prompt retirement (vs gradual) Sudden retirement (vs gradual) Retirement wanted Earlier attitudes to retirement
Attitudes to retirement
Spouse death Specific life-changes
Death of an intimate
Ever widowed
Improved health Change in physical health Years since last employment Time since retirement Gender (male vs female) Sex (male vs female) White Non-Hispanic Ethnic status in the USA Wealth Total wealth More than high school Level of school-education Blue-Collar 'Objective' socio-economic status Unemployed Unemployed involuntary Summed effects Socio-demographic + life-events Retirement Change in retirement status