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Studies

Biswas-Diener et al. (2005): study ZZ Developing nations 2001

Publication

Author(s):
Biswas-Diener, R.; Diener, E.; Vitterso, J.
Title:
Most People are Pretty Happy, but There is Cultural Variation:: The Inughuit, The Amish and the Maasai.
Source:
Journal of Happiness Studies, 2005, Vol. 6, 205 - 226

Investigation

Public:
Adults in 3 non-industrial cultures, 200?
Sample:
Non-probability accidental sample
Respondents:
N = 358
Non Response:
Assessment:
Multiple methods
Oral interviews, written questionnaires, peer reports. With the Maasai another measure was used based on memory-the degree to which the respondent could remember more positive than negative life events in two separate periods. With the Inughuit also the Experience Sampling Method was used (ESM) (see also BISWA 2005/2) Maasai: Oral interviewing in Maa language by outsider Maasai interviewers from another region which have no social connections. Material was translated and back. Amish: Written Surveys in English completed at home with investigator available to answer questions. Inughuit: Written material in Greenlandic. 2 in English and Danish. Completed in a quiet setting with investigators available to answer questions. Translated and back.

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Selfreport on 8 questions:

Using the scale below, indicate how much of the time during the PAST MONTH have you felt each emotion?
A  affectionate
B  joyful
C  sad
D  worried
E  irritable
F  guilty
G  happy
H  proud

1  never
2  slight amount (rare)
3  some of the time
4  about half the time
5  much of the time
6  almost always
7  always

Computation: (A+B+G+H)-(C+D+E+F)/8

Name: Diener's 'Affect Balance'
Classification:
A-BD2-cm-mq-v-7-b
Author's label:
Affect Balance emotions past month
Remarks:
Mean and standard deviations stretched from range -6+6 to range -7+7 (for facilitating comparison with other indicators of happiness on range 1-7)

              Mean    SD   percent above neutral
Maasai   4.2       1.0   100
Amish     1.6       0.7   100
Inughuit  1,7       1,9    79%

Mean score transformed linearly  to scale
             0-100 above neutral    0-10, 5 neutral
             (author's method)         (our standard)
Maasai           70                           8,50
Amish             27                           6,35
Inughuit          28                           6,40
Average                                        7,14
Page in publication:
212-217
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 0%,   2: 0%,   3: 0%,   4: 0%,   5: 0%,   6: 0%,   7: 0%
Summary Statistics
On original range -6 - 6 On range 0-10
Mean:
2.57 7.14
SD:
1.41
Full text:
Peer rating of affect using 8 questions:

Using the scale below, indicate how much of the time during the PAST MONTH has X  felt each emotion?
A  affectionate
B  joyful
C  sad
D  worried
E  irritable
F  guilty
G  happy
H  proud

1  never
2  slight amount (rare)
3  some of the time
4  about half the time
5  much of the time
6  almost always
7  always

Computation: (A+B+G+H)-(C+D+E+F) / 8

Name: Diener's 'Affect Balance'
Classification:
A-BD2-cm-rdp-v-7-a
Author's label:
Peer reported affect balance
Remarks:
Mean and standard deviations stretched from range -6+6 to range -7+7 (for facilitating comparison with other indicators of happiness on range 1-7)

                M         SD     % >neutral
Maasai    3.8       1.0        100
Amish      1.8       0.7         89
Inughuit   2.1       1.8         85

Mean score transformed linearly  to scale
             0-100 above neutral    0-10, 5 neutral
             (author's method)         (our standard)
Maasai           64                           8,20
Inughuit         35                           6,75
Average                                        7,35
Page in publication:
215-217
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 0%,   2: 0%,   3: 0%,   4: 0%,   5: 0%,   6: 0%,   7: 0%
Summary Statistics
On original range -6 - 6 On range 0-10
Mean:
2.66 7.35
SD:
1.36

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Sex Sex (male vs female) Age Current age (in years) Culture ETHNICITY Self report vs peer rating Method of interrogation