Bachman et al. (1978): study US 1966


Bachman, J.G.; Johnston, J.; O'Malley, P.M.
Youth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
Institute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA


Public highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
N = 1628
Non Response:
2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Multiple methods
Interviews, tests and questionnaires

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Selfreport on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1  I feel like smiling
2  I generally feel in good spirits
3  I feel happy
4  I am very satisfied with life
5  I find a good deal of happiness in life
6  I feel sad

Response options:
5   almost always true
4   often true
3   sometimes true
2   seldom true
1   never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5
Author's label:
Error estimates:
Reliability: Overtime correlations (r): T1 T2 T3 T4 T1 T2 +.54 T3 +.45 +.61 T4 +.43 +.54 +.61 Validity:

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Later education attained Later educational level Later job status Later occupation Later employment Later (un)employment Later pay Later level of income Later job satisfaction Later satisfaction with work Prestige of (later) college Later school-environment Level of (later) college Later schooling (Later) military service Later in armed force Later marital status Later entering of marriage Later parental status Actually got children later (follow-up) Urbanicity of later dwelling Rural vs urban dwelling Father's occupation Parents occupation Parent's education Parents education Possesions in home Parents income Number of books in home Parents education Number of rooms per person in home Parents income Number of siblings Number of siblings Lived with both parents Number of parents (broken home) Parental punitiveness Punitive Attendance of black segregated school Ethnic homogeneity of school Attendance of integrated school Ethnic homogeneity of school Geographic region Region in USA Raised on farm Rural upbringing Intelligence Test-intelligence Repeated grade School-success Average grade School-success Number of hours of homework Involvement in school-work Rebellious behavior in school Misbehavior in school Having plans to go to college Educational aspirations Interest in courses Earlier attitudes to school Self-percieved school ability School-success Does best work in school Involvement in school-work Works harder than average Involvement in school-work Self-esteem Earlier self-image Need for self- development Self-actualization (need for)
Earlier need for self-actualization
Need for self- utilization Self-actualization (need for)
Earlier need for self-actualization
Somatic symptoms Later psycho-somatic complaints Impulse to aggression Aggressive, angry Trust in government Attitudes to government Interest in government Political concern Preference for 'a job that pays off' Preferred work-conditions Preference for 'a job that doesn't bug me' Preferred work-conditions Ambitious job attitude Reasons for working Status of aspired occupation Reasons for working Interpersonal aggression Aggressive behavior Daily cigarette use Use of tobacco Alcohol use Use of alcohol Marijuana use Use of barbiturates Drug use Use of barbiturates School mean socioeconomic level Socio-economic level of school Percieved racial discrimination Perceived occurrence of ethnic discrimination Vietnam dissent Attitudes to specific political issues Prefer more militaryinfluence Attitudes to specific political issues Concern about overpopulation Specific concerns Ideal number of children Ideal number of children Negative affective states Earlier mood-pattern
Earlier mental health
Happiness Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago) Delinquent behavior in school Misbehavior in school
Earlier school-behavior
Serious delinquent behaviors Misbehavior in school
Earlier school-behavior
Theft and vandalism Misbehavior in school
Earlier school-behavior
School mean intelligence scores Earlier school-environment
Intellectual level of school
High school curriculum college preparatory Earlier school-environment
Curriculum currently followed
School attitudes Perceived usefulness of schooling
Earlier attitudes to school
Academic achievementvalue Perceived usefulness of schooling
Self-development (self-actualizing values)
Earlier attitudes to school
Satisfaction with own school work Satisfaction with own accomplishments
Perceived pressure of school-work
Earlier attitudes to school
Family's socioeconomic level Socio-economic background (earlier for adults, current for young)
Earlier socio-economic status
Abortion disapproval Domain-specific value-preferences
Later value-preferences
Government should end discrimination Preference for equal rights
Attitudes to ethnic discrimination
Later value-preferences
Acceptance of social values Social values
Later value-preferences
Social distance Earlier tolerance
Tendency to discriminate ethnic groups one-self
Internal control Earlier inner-control
Inner locus of control
Test anxiety Earlier fail-anxiety
Fail anxious
Trust in people Earlier trusting
Trust career
Trust in people
Need for social approval Earlier approval seeking
Approval seeking