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Studies

Bachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1

Publication

Author(s):
Bachman, J.G.; Johnston, J.; O'Malley, P.M.
Title:
Youth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
Source:
Institute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA

Investigation

Public:
Public highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 2213
Non Response:
2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face
Interviews, tests and questionnaires

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Selfreport on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1  I feel like smiling
2  I generally feel in good spirits
3  I feel happy
4  I am very satisfied with life
5  I find a good deal of happiness in life
6  I feel sad

Response options:
5   almost always true
4   often true
3   sometimes true
2   seldom true
1   never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5
Classification:
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-a
Author's label:
Happiness
Error estimates:
Overtime correlations (r): T1 T2 T3 T4 T1 T2 +.54 T3 +.45 +.61 T4 +.43 +.54 +.61

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Interest in government Later political behavior Interpersonal aggression Aggressive behavior Concern about overpopulation Development of one's concerns Parental punitiveness Earlier family situation
Later family situation
Family's socioeconomic level Later family situation
Earlier family situation
Parents' education Later family situation
Earlier family situation
Number of books in home Later family situation
Earlier family situation
Number of rooms per person in home Earlier family situation
Later family situation
Possessions in home Earlier family situation
Later family situation
Father's occupation Earlier family situation
Later family situation
Urbanicity of later dwelling Later residence Somatic symptoms Earlier psycho-somatic complaints Social distance Later tolerance Test anxiety Later fail-anxiousness Need for self-development Later need for self-actualisation Need for self-utilization Later need for self-actualisation Trust in people Later trusting
Trust career
Internal control Earlier inner-control Government should end discrimination Earlier political behavior
Later political behavior
Vietnam dissident Later political behavior
Earlier political behavior
Prefer more military influence Later political behavior
Earlier political behavior
Satisfaction with own school work Satisfaction with own school-performance Daily cigarette use Later use of stimulants Alcohol use Later use of stimulants Marijuana use Later use of stimulants Drug use Later use of stimulants Delinquent behavior in school Aggressive behavior
Earlier aggression
Later aggression
Serious delinquent behaviors Aggressive behavior
Earlier aggression
Later aggression
Theft and vandalism Later aggression
Aggressive behavior
Earlier aggression
Later marital status Life-change career Negative affective states Later mood-pattern Self-esteem Later self-image
Evaluation of self-as-a-whole
Acceptance of social values Earlier value-preferences Academic achievement value Earlier value-preferences
Later value-preferences
Preference for 'a job that pays off' Earlier motivation to work
Later motivation to work
Preference for 'a job that doesn't bug me' Earlier motivation to work
Later motivation to work
Ambitious job attitude Later motivation to work
Earlier motivation to work
Status of aspired occupation Earlier motivation to work
Later motivation to work