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Studies

Bachman et al. (1978): study US 1966 /1

Publication

Author(s):
Bachman, J.G.; Johnston, J.; O'Malley, P.M.
Title:
Youth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
Source:
Institute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA

Investigation

Public:
Public highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 2213
Non Response:
2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face
Interviews, tests and questionnaires

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Self report on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1  I feel like smiling
2  I generally feel in good spirits
3  I feel happy
4  I am very satisfied with life
5  I find a good deal of happiness in life
6  I feel sad

Response options:
5   almost always true
4   often true
3   sometimes true
2   seldom true
1   never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5
Classification:
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-a
Author's label:
Happiness
Error estimates:
Overtime correlations (r): T1 T2 T3 T4 T1 T2 +.54 T3 +.45 +.61 T4 +.43 +.54 +.61

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Interest in government Later political behavior Interpersonal aggression Aggressive behavior Concern about overpopulation Development of one's concerns Parental punitiveness Earlier family situation
Later family situation
Family's socioeconomic level Earlier family situation
Later family situation
Parents' education Earlier family situation
Later family situation
Number of books in home Earlier family situation
Later family situation
Number of rooms per person in home Earlier family situation
Later family situation
Possessions in home Earlier family situation
Later family situation
Father's occupation Earlier family situation
Later family situation
Urbanicity of later dwelling Later residence Somatic symptoms Earlier psycho-somatic complaints Social distance Later tolerance Test anxiety Later fail-anxiousness Need for self-development Later need for self-actualization Need for self-utilization Later need for self-actualization Trust in people Later trusting
Development of trust
Internal control Earlier inner-control Government should end discrimination Earlier political behavior
Later political behavior
Vietnam dissident Earlier political behavior
Later political behavior
Prefer more military influence Earlier political behavior
Later political behavior
Satisfaction with own school work Satisfaction with own school-performance Daily cigarette use Later use of stimulants Alcohol use Later use of stimulants Marijuana use Later use of stimulants Drug use Later use of stimulants Delinquent behavior in school Earlier aggression
Later aggression
Aggressive behavior
Serious delinquent behaviors Earlier aggression
Later aggression
Aggressive behavior
Theft and vandalism Earlier aggression
Later aggression
Aggressive behavior
Later marital status Life-change career Negative affective states Later mood-pattern Self-esteem Later self-image
Evaluation of self-as-a-whole
Acceptance of social values Earlier value-preferences Academic achievement value Earlier value-preferences
Later value-preferences
Preference for 'a job that pays off' Earlier motivation to work
Later motivation to work
Preference for 'a job that doesn't bug me' Earlier motivation to work
Later motivation to work
Ambitious job attitude Earlier motivation to work
Later motivation to work
Status of aspired occupation Earlier motivation to work
Later motivation to work