Bachman et al. (1970): study US 1966


Bachman, J.G.; Davidson, R.L.; Johnson, L.D.; Kahn, R.L.; Mednick, M.T.
Youth in Transition, Vol. 1,2,3,4,5.
Institute for Social Research, 1970, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA


Public highschool boys followed 3 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-69
N = 1799
Non Response:
2.8% incomplete information in 1966
Multiple asesment methods
Interviews, test, teacher ratings.

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Self report on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1  I feel like smiling
2  I generally feel in good spirits
3  I feel happy
4  I am very satisfied with life
5  I find a good deal of happiness in life
6  I feel sad

Response options:
5   almost always true
4   often true
3   sometimes true
2   seldom true
1   never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5
Author's label:
Error estimates:
Repeat reliability: T1 - T3 (30 mos.): r = +.47 T1 - T2 (18 mos.): r = +.54 T2 - T3 (12 mos.): r = +.63
Observed distribution
Summary Statistics
On original range 1 - 5 On range 0-10
3.77 6.90

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Negative affect states Feeling cheerful (vs gloomy) Intelligence Test-intelligence Vocabulary level Verbal ability Reading comprehen- sion ability Verbal ability Delinquent behaviors Misbehavior in school Impulse to aggression Misbehavior in school
Aggressive, angry
Positive attitude towards school Perceived usefulness of schooling Negative attitude toward school Perceived usefulness of schooling Having plans to go to college Perceived usefulness of schooling
Educational aspirations
Academic achievement(grades School-success Self-perceived school ability School-success
Self-perceived intelligence
Rebellious behaviors in school Misbehavior in school Somatic symptoms Current psycho-somatic complaints Status of occupatio-nal aspirations Occupational aspirations Negative affect states Feeling down (vs not)
Current mental complaints
Trust in government Attitudes to national government Internal control Inner locus of control Ambitious job attitude Occupational aspirations
Aspirations for social advancement
Current motivation to work
Need for social approval Approval seeking Need for self-utilization Self-actualization (need for) Need for self-development Self-actualization (need for) Trust in people Trusting
Trust in people
Test-anxiety Fail anxious Political knowledge Political concern Self-esteem Evaluation of self-as-a-whole Preference for "a job that pays off" Aspirations for social advancement
Current motivation to work
Knowledge about occupations Concern about social mobility
Work-attitude career
Preference for "a job that doesn't bug me" Current motivation to work
Aspirations for social advancement
Earlier Happiness Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago) Acceptance of social values Social values
Similarity of own values with others
Positive evaluation of family relations Later family situation
Earlier family situation
Family climate (earlier for adults, current for young)
S.E.S. Earlier socio-economic status
'Objective' socio-economic status