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Studies

Andrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973

Publication

Author(s):
Andrews, F.M.; Withey, S.B.
Title:
Social Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
Source:
Plenum Press, 1976, New York, USA

Investigation

Public:
18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/3
Survey name:
Unnamed study
Sample:
Probability area sample
Respondents:
N = 1433
Non Response:
26%
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face
using highly structured questionnaires

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Selfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7  delighted
6  pleased
5  mostly satisfied
4  mixed
3  mostly dissatisfied
2  unhappy
1  terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale'  (original version)
Classification:
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-a
Author's label:
Life1 (and Life2) (G1-G2)
Page in publication:
209
Error estimates:
Reliability: repeat-reliability (correlation between scores on the same questions asked twice during the interview): r=+.68 Validity:
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 1%,   2: 2%,   3: 2%,   4: 12%,   5: 39%,   6: 34%,   7: 10%   (total 100%)
Summary Statistics
On original range 1 - 7 On range 0-10
Mean:
5.30 7.17
SD:
1.05 1.75
Full text:
Selfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7  delighted
6  pleased
5  mostly satisfied
4  mixed
3  mostly dissatisfied
2  unhappy
1  terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global life satisfaction'
Classification:
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-a
Author's label:
Life3 (G3)
Remarks:
Combination of two ratings on 7-step scale results in 14 steps, with the following frequencies
7.0   6.5   6.0   5.5   5.0   4.5   4.0   3.5   3.0   2.5   2.0   1.5   1.0
   %     %     %     %     %     %     %     %     %     %     %     %     %
6.8   8.7  23.9  19.2  22.4   8.0   6.4   1.4   1.1   0.6   0.7   0.4   0.4
Page in publication:
311
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 0%,   2: 0%,   3: 0%,   4: 0%,   5: 0%,   6: 0%,   7: 0%
Summary Statistics
On original range 1 - 7 On range 0-10
Mean:
5.40 7.33
Full text:
Selfreport on single question:

"Here is a picture of a ladder. At the bottom of the ladder is the worst life you might reasonably expect to have. At the top is the best life you might expect to have. Of course, life from week to week falls somewhere in between. Where was your life most of the time during the past year?"
[ 9 ] best life you might expect to have
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]   
[ 1 ]  worst life you might expect to have


  Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating (modified version)
Classification:
C-BW-cy-sq-l-9-a
Author's label:
Ladder (G6)
Page in publication:
209
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 1%,   2: 2%,   3: 3%,   4: 7%,   5: 23%,   6: 23%,   7: 23%,   8: 11%,   9: 7%   (total 100%)
Summary Statistics
On original range 1 - 9 On range 0-10
Mean:
6.07 6.34
SD:
1.63 2.03
Full text:
Selfreport on single question:

"Here are some circles that we can imagine represent the lives of different people. Circle eight has all pluses in it, to represent a person who has all the good things in his life. Circle zero has all minuses in it, to represent a person who has all the bad things in his life. Other circles are in between. Which circle do you think comes closest to matching your life?"
(circles not reproduced here )
8  + + + + + + + +
7  + + + + + + + -
6  + + + + + +  - -
5  + + + + +  -  - -
4 + + + +  -  -  - -
3  + + +  -  -  -  - -
2  + +  -  -  -  -  - -
2  +  -  -  -  -  -  - -
0   -  -  -  -  -  -  - -

Name: Andrews & Withey's 'Circles Scale'
Classification:
O-GBB-u-sq-c-9-a
Author's label:
Circles (G7)
Page in publication:
209
Observed distribution
Frequencies
1: 11%,   2: 15%,   3: 27%,   4: 20%,   5: 22%,   6: 3%,   7: 1%,   8: 0%,   9: 1%   (total 100%)
Summary Statistics
On original range 0 - 8 On range 0-10
Mean:
6.53 8.16
SD:
1.51 1.89

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Satisfaction with amount of fun Pleasant (vs unpleasant) Satisfaction with achieving success Realization of employment goals Satisfaction with developing oneself Realization of educational goals Satisfaction with interestingness of daily life Interesting (vs boring) Satisfaction with amount of beauty Interesting (vs boring) Satisfaction with pressure Relaxed (vs stressful) Satisfaction with freedom from bother Easy (vs hard) Satisfaction with neatness Satisfaction with neatness of local streets Satisfaction with one's sincerity Satisfaction with own morality Satisfation with physical work Satisfaction with physical activity Satisfaction with physical needs met Satisfaction with physical needs met Satisfaction with religious faith Satisfaction with religion Income Current income level (unspecified) Educational level Level of school-education White race Ethnic status in the USA Male sex Sex (male vs female) Overall happiness Life 3 O-DT by O-DT
Sequence of items
Overall happiness: Ladder: most O-DT by C-BW
Sequence of items
Overall happiness Circles: whole life O-DT by O-further
Sequence of items
O-further by C-BW
Highest overall happiness: Ladder best Extremes of happiness experienced
Sequence of items
Lowest overall happiness: Ladder: worst Extremes of happiness experienced
Sequence of items
Overall compared to others: Circles:R-others Perceived difference with own happiness
Sequence of items
Past change in overall happiness: Past progress Recent change
Sequence of items
Expected change in happiness In the near future (up to 5 years)
Sequence of items
Expected change in happiness: Progress past & future In the near future (up to 5 years)
Sequence of items
Past years extremes: Ladder:best-worst Extremes of happiness experienced
Sequence of items
Past happiness: Ladder:5 years ago In recent past
Sequence of items
Expected happiness Ladder:5 years hence In the near future (up to 5 years)
Sequence of items
Perceived happiness of others: Circles: others Perceived level of happiness of compatriots
Sequence of items
Interviewer rating of life satisfaction O-further by O-further
Rating of happiness by interviewer
O-further by C-BW
O-DT by O-further
Satisfaction with one's toughness Satisfaction with own coping Satisfaction with oneself Current satisfaction with self Satisfaction with physical work Satisfaction with physical activity Satisfaction with fair treatment by others Satisfaction with fair treatment in nation
Attitudes to value-climate
Satisfaction with acceptance by others Attitudes to own reputation Satisfaction with respect from others Trust in people Satisfaction with financial security Satisfaction with financial security Satisfaction with safety Secure (vs threatened) Age Current age (in years) Social economic status 'Objective' socio-economic status
Status consistency
Family life cycle Family career (family life-cycle) Feelings about life as a whole Mixed multiple life-appraisals Satisfaction with independance Satisfaction with freedom Satsfaction with contribution to others life Satisfaction with meaning Satisfaction with contribution to others life Meaningful (vs useless)
Satisfaction with contributions to others
Attitudes to own support behavior
Satisfaction with others sincerity Attitudes to value-climate
Satisfaction with moral climate
Status consistency Over/under-achievement
Status consistency
Satisfaction with adjustment to changes in life Satisfaction with own coping with life-change
Satisfaction with own coping