Adams (1988): study US 1981
- Adams, R.G.
- Which comes First: Poor Psychological Well-Being or Decreased Friendship Activity?
- Activities, Adaptation & Aging, 1988, Vol. 12, 27 - 41
- 62+ aged, white non-married females, middle class suburb of Chicago, USA. followed 1981-84
- N = 70
- Non Response:
- Dropout : 27% due to incapacity, 13% refusal
Depth interview (T1), mailed questionnaire and telephone interview (T2)
Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings
- Full text:
Selfreport on 10 questions:
During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly excited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?
Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5
Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
- Author's label:
- Psychological well-being
Number of friends/acquaintances
Current number of friends
Number of close friends