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Studies

Adams (1988): study US 1981

Publication

Author(s):
Adams, R.G.
Title:
Which comes First: Poor Psychological Well-Being or Decreased Friendship Activity?
Source:
Activities, Adaptation & Aging, 1988, Vol. 12, 27 - 41

Investigation

Public:
62+ aged, white non-married females, middle class suburb of Chicago, USA. followed 1981-84
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 70
Non Response:
Dropout : 27% due to incapacity, 13% refusal
Assessment:
Multiple methods
Depth interview (T1), mailed questionnaire and telephone interview (T2)

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Selfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....?  (yes/no)
A   Particularly excited or interested in something?
B   So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C   Proud because someone complimented you on something  
     you had done?
D   Very lonely or remote from other people?
E   Pleased about having accomplished something?
F   Bored?
G   On top of the world?
H   Depressed or very unhappy?
I    That things were going your way?
J    Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no  = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
Classification:
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-a
Author's label:
Psychological well-being

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Number of friends Current number of friends Interaction with friends Current contacts with friends Number of local friends Social contacts in vinicity
Number of friends/acquaintances
Earlier affect Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago) Number of local friends Social contacts in vinicity
Current number of friends
Number of emotionally close friends Earlier friendships
Number of close friends