Zautra et al. (1977): study US Salt Lake County, Utah 1975


Zautra, A.J.; Beier, E.; Cappel, L.
The Dimension of Life Quality in a Community.
American Journal of Community Psychology, 1977, Vol. 5, 85 - 97


18+ aged, general public, Salt Lake County, USA, 1973-74
Survey name
Unnamed study
Probability multistage stratified area sample
N = 454
Non Response
Interview: face-to-face
interview at home, with closed and open ended questions

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Self report on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7  delighted
6  pleased
5  mostly satisfied
4  mixed
3  mostly dissatisfied
2  unhappy
1  terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global life satisfaction'
Author's label:
Life evaluation
Error estimates:
Reliability: To minimize interviewer ratings biases, 25 experienced interviewers were selected by use of several selection procedures. To test for potential biases interviewer ratingscales were developed and included in the survey. First, the interviewer had to count the frequency of eye-contact between him and the respondent during the interview. Second, the interviewer had to rate the respondent on his friendliness,openness, anger, overall mood, activity and health on a 5 points scale.The ratings showed, in general, high internal consistency but were unrelated to questions of quality of life. Interviewer rating biases did not affect reports of life quality from the perspective of this measure.

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Happiness with family life Satisfaction with family of relatives Personal life-style evaluation Mixed multiple life-appraisals Economic well-being Satisfaction with income\finances Life crisis Life-stress inventories Family responsibility Current life-style pattern (life-style type)
Current roles
Work responsibility Current concern about work Religious Fellowshipand Social Partici- pation. Participation in church Self activation Self-perceived usefulness Friendliness Sociable Eye-contact Sociable Interest during interview Characteristics of intimate-network Anger Aggressive, angry Openness Open Activity Current activity level Health Expert rating of health Overall mood Mood during the interview Blaming orientation Perceived sources of one's own happiness Recovery preferences Current coping-style Responsibility to oneself Self-perceived usefulness Eye-contact Response tendencies