Moller (1985): study ZA 1984


Moller, V.
Quality of Life in Retirement: A Survey Evaluation of Return Migration tot Kwazulu.
Monograph No. 10, Center for Applied Social Sciences, 1985, University of Napal, Durban, South Africa


Ex-migrant workers, returned to rural Kwazulu, South Africa, 1984
Survey name
Unnamed study
Non-probability purposive sample
N = 253
Non Response
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)
open- and closed-ended questions. The fieldwork was carried out by three Zulu male research assistants. The fieldworkers spent up to several weeks in any of the research areas to make a detailed study of living conditions of the rural communities.

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Self report on single question:

Taken all things together, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days? On the whole, would you say you are.....?
5  very satisfied
4  satisfied
3  neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2  dissatisfied
1  very dissatisfied
Author's label:
Life satisfaction
Page in publication:
Observed distribution
1: 19.5%,   2: 44%,   3: 0%,   4: 35.5%,   5: 0%   (total 99%)
Summary Statistics
On original range 1 - 5 On range 0-10
2.52 4.67
1.17 2.90
Full text:
Self report on single question:

Taking all things together in your life, how would you say things are these days?  Would you say you are ....?
5  very happy
4  happy
3  neither happy nor unhappy
2  unhappy
1  very unhappy
Author's label:
Page in publication:
Observed distribution
1: 33.9%,   2: 21.5%,   3: 2%,   4: 35.5%,   5: 7%   (total 99.9%)
Summary Statistics
On original range 1 - 5 On range 0-10
2.60 4.03
1.43 3.08

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Number of years worked in town Time involved in migrant work Total years worked in wage employment Time involved in migrant work
Years in occupation
Age at retirement from wage labour Change in migrant work
Age at retirement
Age of stop migrant work
Number of years retired Time since retirement
Time since stop migrant work
Job satisfaction when in wage employment Earlier satisfaction with work Positive anticipation of retirement Earlier attitudes to retirement Timing of retirement Attitudes to migrant work
Attitude to early retirement
Preference for early retirement from migrant work
Involuntary retirement Compulsory retirement (vs free choice) Sudden retirement Sudden retirement (vs gradual) Frequency of home visits while working in town Visits to home during earlier migrant work Size of fields Size of farm Perceived security of landholding Security of farm land holding Self-sufficiency in maize Non-money income from farming
Self reliance
Grows cash crops Activities on farm
Non-money income from farming
Type of house Type of current dwelling Keep chickens Keeps poultry Keep goats Keeps goats Number of cattle owner Size of farm
Keeps cattle
Number of children supported Financial support of children Pension income Income from pension Monthly cash income Personal income Perceived financial deprivation in retirement Change to better or worse Interviewer's affluence rating Relative to income in neighborhood Education Years schooling Married status Married state (compared to non-married states) Polygamist Polygamous marriage (vs monogamous) Christian religion Christian religion Traditionalist religion Christian religion
Local traditional religion
Newcomer in community Recently moved
Length of residence
Community elder Age difference among elderly Health satisfaction Satisfaction with health Perceived restrictions due to ill health Degree of restriction Access to a confidant Having a confident or not Activity index Current activity level
Physical activity
Social activity
Perception of aging gradually Change in age identification Age identification Subjective age (how old one feels)
Age identification
Comparative happiness (relative to grandparents) Perceived difference with own happiness
Earlier happiness of others
Evaluation of retirement Satisfaction with retirement Retirement meets expectations Attitudes to retirement
Perceived realization of earlier expectations about retirement
Desire to return to work Preference for returning to migrant work
Wish to resume working
Congruence aspirations/achievements Perceived realization of specific life-goals Personal modernity Modern attitudes Preference for entrepreneurship Object of life-goals
Preference for entrepreneurship in retirement
Entrepreneur Entrepreneur Life satisfaction O-HL by O-SL Age Age difference among elderly Modern community leader Attitudes to local government
Attitudes to political leadership
Planning is key to success in life Attitudes to planning Achieved/confident of becoming wealthy Realization of income goals Perceived financial adequacy Sufficiency of current income