Lichter et al. (1980): study NZ 1978


Lichter, S.; Haye, K.; Kammann, R.
Increasing Happiness through Cognitive Retraining.
New Zealand Psychologist, 1980, Vol. 9, 57 - 64


Adults, trainees and controls, followed 10 weeks, Dunedin, New Zealand, 1978
Survey name
Unnamed study
Non-probability self-selected
N = 23
Non Response
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)
Administered at beginning, after a 4-weeks course and 6 weeks later.

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Self report on 48 questions:

Each of the sentences below describes a FEELING. Mark HOW OFTEN you had that feeling during the past few weeks.
A    Nothing goes right with me
B    I feel close to people around me
C    I feel as though the best years of my life are over
D    I feel my life is on the right track
E    I feel loved and trusted
F    My work gives me a lot of pleasure
G    I don't like myself
H    I feel very tense
I     I feel life isn't worth living
J     I am content with myself
K    My past life is filled with failure
L    Everything I do seems worthwhile
M    I  can't be bothered doing anything
N    I feel I can do whatever I want to
O    I have lost interest in other people and don't care about   
P     Everything is going right for me
Q    I can express my feelings and emotions towards other
R    I'm easy going
S    I seem to be left alone when I don't want to be
T    I wish I could change some parts of my life
U    I seem to have no real drive to do anything
V    The future looks good
W    I become very lonely
X     I can concentrate well on what I'm doing
Y     I feel out of place
Z     I think clearly and creatively
AA   I feel alone
AB   I feel free and easy
AC   I smile and laugh a lot
AD   I feel things are going my way
AE   The world seems a cold and impersonal place
AF    I feel I've made a mess of things again
AG   I feel like hiding away
AH   I feel confident about decisions I make
AI     I feel depressed for no apparent reason
AJ    I feel other people like me
AK   I feel like a failure
AL    I feel I'm a complete person
AM   I'm not sure I'm done the right thing
AN    My future looks good
AO    I'm making the most out of my life
AP    Everything is going right for me
AQ    I feel unimportant
AR    I feel as though there must be something wrong with me
AS    I don't feel like making the effort to do anything
AT    I feel confident in my dealings with the opposite sex
AU    I want to hurt those who have hurt me
AV    The results I have obtained make my efforts worthwhile

Each of the objectives below describe a FEELING. Mark HOW OFTEN you had that feeling during the past few weeks;
A     Confident
B     Hopeless
C     Pleasant
D     Insignificant
E     Discontented
F     Healthy
G     Dejected
H     Annoyed
I      Down
J      Glad
K     Glowing
L      Relaxed
M     Comfortable
N     Moody
O     Understood
P      Blue
Q     Miserable
R     Joyful
S     Tense
T      Insecure
U     Shaky
V     Satisfied
W    Safe
X     Successful
Y     Free
Z     Sad
AA   Good-natured
AB    Impatient
AC    Rejected
AD    Lively
AE    Frustrated
AF     Fearful
AG    Lonely
AH    Warm
AI      Contented
AJ     Good
AK     Secure
AL      Disappointed
AM     Understanding
AN     Depressed
AO      Low
AP      Calm
AQ      Unhappy
AR      Upset
AS       Empty
AT       Enthusiastic
AU       Happy
AV       Vibrant

Answer options:
0  not at all
1  occasionally
2  some of the time
3  often
4  all of the time

-Positive Affect Score (PAS): mean positive items
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): mean negative items
-Affect Balance Score (ABS):  PAS minus NAS
Possible range - 4  to  +4

Name: Kamman's Affectometer 1: version last month
Author's label:
Affectometer 1; short form
Error estimates:
Reliability: _=.96. r=.94 for the control group in retest after 4 weeks and .93 after 10 weeks. Validity: r=-.70 with Beck Depression Inventory.
Observed distribution
Summary Statistics
On original range -4 - 4 On range 0-10
2.20 7.80
0.90 -
Full text:
Self report on single question:

".........satisfaction with life right now........."
(Full question not reported)

1  -
7  +
Response options not reported.
Author's label:
Global life satisfaction
Full text:
Self report on single question:

Taking all things together, how happy would you say you have been feeling OVER THE PAST WEEK.  Please place an x by the choice which best describes how happy you have felt. Try to be as accurate as you can.

Over the past week I have been feeling...
5   very happy
4   happy
3   somewhat happy
2   unhappy
1   very unhappy
Author's label:
Happiness criterion

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Sumscore domain- satisfactions Satisfaction with multiple domains of life Future happiness (retest) Recent happiness (< 1 year ago) Beliefs about self Actual changes in happiness
Success of psychological treatment
Course, class, training group
Voluntary, unsolicited
Multiple sorts
Mixed educational methods
Change belief in self-change
Cognitive reframing
Course on happiness and positive mental health Actual changes in happiness
Change in self-image
Course, class, training group
Voluntary, unsolicited