# Helliwell et al. (2020): study BR 2012

## Publication

Author(s):
Helliwell, J.F.; Layard, R.; Sachs, J.
Title:
World Happiness Report 2020
Source:
Helliwell, J., Layard, R., & Sachs, J. (2020). World Happiness Report 2020.

## Investigation

Public
15+ aged general public, Brazil, 2012
Survey name
INT-GallupWorldPoll2012
Sample
Probability multi-stage random
Respondents
N = 1000
Non Response
Assessment
Interview: Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI)

## Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Self report on single question:

Here is ladder representing the 'ladder of life'. Let's suppose the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you; and the bottom, the worst possible life for you. On which step of the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
10 best possible
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life

This question was followed (not preceded) by items on life 5 years ago and 5 years from now.
Classification:
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c
Author's label:
Life ladder
Observed distribution
Summary Statistics
On original range 0 - 10 On range 0-10
Mean:
6.66 6.66
SD:
2.40 2.40
Full text:
Self report on 6 questions

A  Did you smile and laugh a lot yesterday?

Did you experience the following feelings during A LOT OF THE DAY yesterday?
B  How about enjoyment?
C  How about worry?
D  How about sadness?
E  How about happiness?
F  How about anger?

Rated:
1 yes
0  no

Computation:
- Average % positive affect = (A+B+E)/3
- Average % negative affect = (C+D+F)/3
- Affect Balance = Average % positive affect - Average % negative affect

Transformation to range 0-10:
(Score[range-100-100] + 100)/200*10

These questions do not measure hedonic level of affect of individual persons adequately, since yesterday's mood does not always correspond with typical average mood. Yet these questions can be used for measuring hedonic level in aggregates, such as nations, since individual variations balance out in big samples.
Classification:
A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-tb
Author's label:
positive and negative affect
Observed distribution
Summary Statistics
On original range -100 - 100 On range 0-10
Mean:
40.49 7.02
SD:
- -
Full text:
Estimation of average life-satisfaction in a nation using best fitting combination of average score in that nation on questions on affect and contentment in the same period.

CONTENTMENT. Measured using self-report on single question:
Here is ladder representing the 'ladder of life'. Let's suppose the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you; and the bottom, the worst possible life for you. On which step of the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
10 best possible life
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life
Measure code C-BW-c-sq-l-11-c

AFFECT BALANCE. Self-report on 3 items on negative affect and 2 or 3 items* on positive affect.
Did you experience the following feelings during A LOT OF THE DAY yesterday?
A1. enjoyment?
A2. happiness? (* this item only from 2008 until 2012)
B1. worry?
B2. sadness?
B3. anger?
Now please think about YESTERDAY, from the morning until the end of the day. Think of where you were, what you were doing and how you felt.
A3.   Did you smile or laugh a lot yesterday?
Rated:
1  yes
0 no
Affect Balance = percentage "yes" in A minus percentage "yes" in B.
Transformation to 0-10 scale: Affect balance*0,05+5.
Measure code: A-AB-yd-mq-v-2-fb/tb

COMPUTATION:
Estimated Life Satisfaction = 0.8932 + country specific intercept + year specific intercept + 0.751 * contentment + 0.1635 * affect balance.

For methodology and  country specific and year specific intercepts see EHERO working paper 2021-3 at https://www.eur.nl/en/ehero/media/2021-03
Classification:
O-SLW-*-ds-nt-11-a
Author's label:
Lifeladder and affect combination
Observed distribution
Summary Statistics
On original range 0 - 10 On range 0-10
Mean:
- 7.10
SD:
- -