Headey et al. (1993): study AU AU Victoria 1981


Headey, B.; Kelley, J.; Wearing, A.J.
Dimensions of Mental Health: Life Satisfaction, Positive Affect, Anxiety and Depression.
Social Indicators Research, 1993, Vol. 29, 63 - 82


18-65 aged, Victoria, Australia, followed 1981 to 1987
Probability stratified sample
N = 419
Non Response
Interview: face-to-face
In 1981 942 panel members were selected. By 1987 649 members remained. In 1987 a supplementary mail questionnaire, used to measure depression and anxiety, netted 419 replies. Mailed questionnaire at T4 to measure depression/anxiety

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Self report on single question asked twice

'How do you feel about your life as a whole?'
1  terrible
2  very unhappy
3  unhappy
4  mostly dissatisfied
5  mixed feelings
6  mostly satisfied
7  pleased
8  very pleased
9  delighted
Author's label:
Life-as-a-whole (LAW) index
Page in publication:
Error estimates:
Correlations between responses to this same item administered15 minutes apart: +.71
Full text:
Self report on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....?  (yes/no)
A   Particularly excited or interested in something?
B   So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C   Proud because someone complimented you on something  
     you had done?
D   Very lonely or remote from other people?
E   Pleased about having accomplished something?
F   Bored?
G   On top of the world?
H   Depressed or very unhappy?
I    That things were going your way?
J    Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no  = 0
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
Author's label:
Positive(PAS)/Negative(NAS) Affect Scale
Page in publication:
Full text:
Self report on single question:

Use the list below to answer the following question: IN GENERAL, HOW HAPPY OR UNHAPPY DO YOU USUALLY FEEL? Check the one statement that best describes your average happiness.
10  extremely happy (feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic!)
9    very happy (feeling really good and elated!)
8    pretty happy (spirits high, feeling good)
7    mildly happy (feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful)
6    slightly happy ( just a bit above neutral)
5    slightly unhappy (just a bit below neutral)
4    mildly unhappy (just a bit low)
3    pretty unhappy (somewhat "blue", spirits down)
2    very unhappy ( depressed, spirits very low)
1    extremely unhappy (utterly depressed, completely down)

Name: Fordyce's overall happiness item.
Author's label:
0-10 Happy-Scale
Page in publication:
Full text:
Self report on 8 items

A  How do you feel about your life as a whole?
    Rated on a 9-step Delighted-Terrible scale
    Asked twice in the interview with 15 minutes interval

B  a  In most ways my life is close to ideal
    b  The conditions of my life are excellent
    c  I am satisfied with my life
    d  So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life
    e  If I could live my life over, I would change nothing'
    Answers rated: 7  strongly agree to 1  strongly disagree

C  How do you feel usually?
    0  extremely unhappy
    10 extremely happy

Computation: factor
Author's label:
Life Satisfaction
Page in publication:

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Extraversion Extraverted Sex Sex: male (vs female) Satisfaction with Life (SWLS) scale Life-adjustment inventories 0-10 Happy Scale O-DT by A-AOL Positive Affect Scale (PAS) Current mood of the moment Negative Affect Scale (NAS) Current mood of the moment General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) Scores on symptom inventories Anxiety Feeling secure (vs threatened)
Beck Depression Inventory Depressive (f31-33) EPI Lie scale Agreeing, yea-saying Warmth Empathic Sociability Sociable Neuroticism Neurotic (f48) Age Current age (in years) Socio-economic status Current socio-economic status Openness to feelings Open Availabilty of friends Current contacts with friends
Current friendship network
Friendship satisfaction Satisfaction with friends Availability of intimate attachment Current intimate relationships
Current chances for intimacy
Family cohesion Family climate (earlier for adults, current for young) Family satisfaction Attitudes to family of origin
Satisfaction with family
Self-rated health Self-perceived health Healthy lifestyle Current healthy life-style Health Satisfaction Satisfaction with health Favourable events Sum of positive life-events Adverse events Sum of negative life-events