Diener et al. (1991): study US 1989


Diener, E.; Pavot, W.; Sandvik, E.
Happiness is the Frequency, not Intensity, of Positive versus Negative Affect.
Strack, F.;et al (Eds).: "Subjective Well-Being", Pergamon, 1991, Oxford, UK, 119 - 140


Students , USA, 1989
Non-probability chunk sample
N = 107
Non Response
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Self report on single question:

Use the list below to answer the following question: IN GENERAL, HOW HAPPY OR UNHAPPY DO YOU USUALLY FEEL? Check the one statement that best describes your average happiness.
10  extremely happy (feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic!)
9    very happy (feeling really good and elated!)
8    pretty happy (spirits high, feeling good)
7    mildly happy (feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful)
6    slightly happy ( just a bit above neutral)
5    slightly unhappy (just a bit below neutral)
4    mildly unhappy (just a bit low)
3    pretty unhappy (somewhat "blue", spirits down)
2    very unhappy ( depressed, spirits very low)
1    extremely unhappy (utterly depressed, completely down)

Name: Fordyce's overall happiness item.
Full text:
Self report on 18 questions:

How have things been going in the past few weeks? Please tick one of the two boxes for each of the questions below:
A  Have you been annoyed with someone?
B  Have you ever felt lonely or remote from people?
C  Have you ever felt that things were going your way?
D  Have you ever felt very worried
E  Have you ever felt pleased because you've got friends?
F  Have you ever been afraid of what might happen?
G  Have you ever felt particularly excited or interested in something?
H  Have you ever felt depressed or unhappy?
I   Have you ever been full of energy?
J  Have you ever felt really tired?
K  Have you ever felt so restless that you could not sit long in a chair?
L  Have you ever felt that you were really enjoying yourself?
M  Have you ever felt really cheerful?
N  Have you ever felt like crying?
O  Have you ever felt at the top of the world?
P  Have you ever felt confident about the future?
Q  Have you ever felt bored?
R  Have you ever felt pleased about having accomplished something?

0:  no
1:  yes

Computation: (C+E+G+I+L+M+O+P+R) - (A+B+D+F+H+J+K+N+Q)

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale: extended version
Full text:
Self report on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7  delighted
6  pleased
5  mostly satisfied
4  mixed
3  mostly dissatisfied
2  unhappy
1  terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale'  (original version)

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Frequency of positive affect Hedonic tone in affect Intensity of positive Affect Intensity of affects Interaction of positiv and negative affect Intensity of affects
Hedonic tone in affect
Frequency and average affect Intensity of affects
Hedonic tone in affect
Maximizer Intensity of affects
O-DT by A-AB
A-AB by A-AB
by pure indicators of hedonic level
Hedonic tone in affect