Bachman et al. (1978): study US 1966


Bachman, J.G.; Johnston, J.; O'Malley, P.M.
Youth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
Institute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA


Public highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
N = 1628
Non Response
2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Multiple assesment methods
Interviews, tests and questionnaires

Happiness Measure(s) and Distributional Findings

Full text:
Self report on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1  I feel like smiling
2  I generally feel in good spirits
3  I feel happy
4  I am very satisfied with life
5  I find a good deal of happiness in life
6  I feel sad

Response options:
5   almost always true
4   often true
3   sometimes true
2   seldom true
1   never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5
Author's label:
Error estimates:
Reliability: Overtime correlations (r): T1 T2 T3 T4 T1 T2 +.54 T3 +.45 +.61 T4 +.43 +.54 +.61 Validity:

Correlational Findings

Author's label Subject Description Finding Later education attained Later educational level Later job status Later occupation Later employment Later (un)employment Later pay Later level of income Later job satisfaction Later satisfaction with work Prestige of (later) college Later school-environment
Later school level
Level of (later) college Later intelligence
Later schooling
Later competences
Later school success
(Later) military service Later military life Later marital status Later entering of marriage Later parental status Actually got children later (follow-up) Urbanicity of later dwelling Size of urban setting Father's occupation Parents occupation Parent's education Parents education Possesions in home Parents wealth
Possessions in family of origin
Number of books in home Parents education Number of rooms per person in home Earlier housing
Parents wealth
Number of siblings Number of siblings Lived with both parents Number of parents (broken home)
One parent family
Parental punitiveness Punitive
Earlier victimization (ever victimized)
Attendance of black segregated school Earlier school-environment
Ethnic homogeneity of school
Attendance of integrated school Earlier school-environment
Ethnic homogeneity of school
Geographic region Region in USA
Earlier region of residence
Raised on farm Rural upbringing Intelligence Earlier intelligence
Repeated grade School-success
Doubled a class
Average grade School-success
Earlier school success
Later school success
Number of hours of homework Involvement in school-work
Earlier time spend on home work
Later time spend on homework
Rebellious behavior in school Misbehavior in school Having plans to go to college Educational aspirations
Earlier attitudes to school
Later attitudes to school
Interest in courses Earlier attitudes to school
Later attitudes to school
Attitudes to school
Self-percieved school ability Earlier intelligence
Later intelligence
Self-perceived intelligence
Verbal ability
Does best work in school Involvement in school-work
Earlier motivation
Later motivation
Achievement motivation
Works harder than average Involvement in school-work Self-esteem Earlier self-image
Later self-image
Need for self- development Earlier need for self-actualization
Self-actualization (need for)
Later need for self-actualization
Need for self- utilization Earlier need for self-actualization
Self-actualization (need for)
Somatic symptoms Earlier psycho-somatic complaints
Later psycho-somatic complaints
Current psycho-somatic complaints
Impulse to aggression Earlier aggression
Later aggression
Aggressive, angry
Trust in government Attitudes to government
Trust in government
Later trust in government
Earlier trust in government
Interest in government Political concern
Earlier political interest
Later political interest
Preference for 'a job that pays off' Preferred work-conditions
Achievement motivation
Earlier preferences
Later preferences
Preference for 'a job that doesn't bug me' Preferred work-conditions
Pleasure seeking
Earlier preferences
Later preferences
Ambitious job attitude Aspirations for social advancement
Reasons for working
Achievement motivation
Earlier preferred work conditions
Earlier achievement motivation
Later achievement motivation
Status of aspired occupation Reasons for working
Status motivation
Earlier preferred work conditions
Later preference for a challenging job
Interpersonal aggression Earlier aggression
Later aggression
Aggressive behavior
Daily cigarette use Use of tobacco
Earlier use of tobacco
Later use of tobacco
Alcohol use Use of alcohol
Earlier use of alcohol
Later use of alcohol
Marijuana use Use of marihuana, hash
Earlier use of marihuana
Later use of marihuana
Drug use Earlier use of hard drugs
Use of hard drugs
Later use of hard drugs
School mean socioeconomic level Socio-economic level of school
Earlier socio-economic level of school
Percieved racial discrimination Perceived occurrence of ethnic discrimination
Earlier discrimination
Later discrimination
Vietnam dissent Later political behavior
Attitudes to specific political issues
Prefer more militaryinfluence Later political behavior
Attitudes to specific political issues
Concern about overpopulation Later concern about overpopulation
Concern about overpopulation
Ideal number of children Later want for children
Ideal number of children
Negative affective states Earlier mental health
Later mental health
Earlier mood-pattern
Later mood-pattern
Feeling negative (vs positive)
Happiness Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago) Delinquent behavior in school Earlier school-behavior
Later school-behavior
Misbehavior in school
Serious delinquent behaviors Earlier school-behavior
Misbehavior in school
Current deviant behavior
Earlier deviant behavior
Later deviant behavior
Later misbehavior at school
Theft and vandalism Earlier school-behavior
Misbehavior in school
Earlier deviant behavior
Later deviant behavior
Later misbehavior at school
School mean intelligence scores Earlier school-environment
Intellectual level of school
High school curriculum college preparatory Curriculum currently followed
Earlier precatory higher education
Later precatory higher education
in precatory higher education
School attitudes Earlier attitudes to school
Perceived usefulness of schooling
Academic achievement value Earlier attitudes to school
Involvement in school-work
Achievement motivation
Earlier involvement in school
Later involvement in school
Earlier achievement motivation
Later achievement motivation
Satisfaction with own school work Earlier attitudes to school
Satisfaction with own school-performance
Satisfaction with own accomplishments
Family's socioeconomic level Socio-economic background (earlier for adults, current for young)
Earlier socio-economic status
Abortion disapproval Later attitudes
Later value-preferences
Domain-specific value-preferences
Acceptance of abortion
Government should end discrimination Later attitudes
Attitudes to ethnic discrimination
Later value-preferences
Preference for equal rights
Acceptance of social values Sociable
Earlier value-preferences
Later value-preferences
Social values
Social distance Tendency to discriminate ethnic groups one-self
Earlier tolerance
Later tolerance
Internal control Earlier inner-control
Inner locus of control
Later locus of control
Test anxiety Earlier fail-anxiety
Fail anxious
Later anxiety
Trust in people Earlier trusting
Development of trust
Trust in people
Need for social approval Earlier approval seeking
Approval seeking